Up To 400 Universal Core Values of Human Being


Universal or Core Ethical Values

Trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship — are six core ethical values.

Using core ethical values as the basis for ethical thinking can help detect situations where we focus so hard on upholding one value that we sacrifice another — eg we are loyal to friends and so do not always tell the truth about their actions.



Trustworthiness concerns a variety of behavioral qualities —  honesty, integrity, reliability and loyalty.


There is no more fundamental ethical value than honesty. We associate honesty with people of honour, and we admire and trust those who are honest.

Honesty in communications is about intent to convey the truth as best we know it and to avoid communicating in a way likely to mislead or deceive.

There are three dimensions:

Truthfulness — truthfulness means not intentionally misrepresenting a fact (lying). Intent is the crucial distinction between truthfulness and truth itself. Being wrong is not the same thing as being a liar, although honest mistakes can still damage trust.

Sincerity/non-deception — a sincere person does not act, say half-truths, or stay silent with the intention of creating beliefs or leaving impressions that are untrue or misleading.

Frankness — In relationships involving trust, honesty may also require us to volunteer information that another person needs to know.

Honesty in conduct prohibits stealing, cheating, fraud, and trickery. Cheating is not only dishonest but takes advantage of those who are not cheating. It’s a violation of trust and fairness.

Not all lies are unethical, even though all lies are dishonest. Occasionally dishonesty is ethically justifiable, such as when the police lie in undercover operations or when one lies to criminals or terrorists to save lives. But occasions for ethically sanctioned lying are rare – eg saving a life.


There are no differences in the way an ethical person makes decisions from situation to situation – no difference in the way they act at work and at home, in public and alone.

The person of integrity takes time for self-reflection so that the events, crises and the necessities of the day do not determine the course of their moral life. They stay in control.

The four enemies of integrity are:

  • Self-interest — Things we want
  • Self-protection — Things we don’t want
  • Self-deception — A refusal to see a situation clearly
  • Self-righteousness — An end-justifies-the-means attitude


When we make promises or commitments to people our ethical duties go beyond legal obligations. The ethical dimension of promise-keeping imposes the responsibility of making all reasonable efforts to fulfill our commitments.

It is also important to:

Avoid bad-faith excuses — Honourable people don’t rationalize noncompliance or create justifications for escaping commitments.

Avoid unwise commitments — Before making a promise consider carefully whether you are willing and likely to keep it. Think about unknown or future events that could make it difficult, undesirable or impossible to keep your commitment. Sometimes, all we can do is promise to do our best.

Avoid unclear commitments — Since others will expect you to live up to what they think you have promised to do, be sure that, when you make a promise, the other person understands what you are committing to do.


Loyalty is about promoting and protecting the interests of certain people, organizations or affiliations. Some relationships — husband-wife, employer-employee, citizen-country — create an expectation of loyalty.

Prioritizing Loyalties. Because so many individuals and groups make loyalty claims on us, it is often impossible to honor them all simultaneously. Consequently, we must rank our loyalty obligations in some rational fashion. In our personal lives, for example, it’s perfectly reasonable, and ethical, to look out for the interests of our children, parents and spouses even if we have to subordinate our obligations to other children, neighbors, or co-workers in doing so.

Safeguarding Confidential Information. Loyalty requires us to keep secrets or information learned in confidence.

Avoiding Conflicting Interests. Employees and public servants have an additional responsibility to make all professional decisions on merit not personal interests. Their goal is to maintain the trust of the public.

Respect is about honouring the essential worth and dignity of all people, including oneself. We are morally obligated to treat everyone with respect, regardless of who they are and what they have done. We have a responsibility to be the best we can be in all situations, even when dealing with unpleasant people.

Respect focuses on:

Civility, Courtesy and Decency – A respectful person is a good listener. The respectful person treats others with consideration, conforming to accepted notions of taste and propriety, and doesn’t resort to intimidation, coercion or violence except in extraordinary and limited situations to teach discipline, maintain order or achieve social justice.

Tolerance – An ethical person accepts individual differences and beliefs and judges others only on their character.

Life is full of choices. Being responsible means being in charge of our choices and therefore our lives. It means being accountable for what we do and who we are. It also means recognizing that what we do, and what we don’t do, matters.


An accountable person is not a victim and doesn’t shift blame or claim credit for the work of others.

Pursuit of Excellence

The pursuit of excellence has an ethical dimension when others rely upon our knowledge, ability or willingness to perform tasks safely and effectively.

Diligence. Responsible people are reliable, careful, prepared and informed.

Perseverance. Responsible people finish what they start, overcoming rather than surrendering to obstacles and excuses.

Continuous Improvement. Responsible people look for ways to do their work better.


Responsible people exercise self-control, restraining passions and appetites (such as lust, hatred, gluttony, greed and fear). They delay gratification if necessary and never feel it’s necessary to “win at any cost.”

Fairness is a tricky concept. Disagreeing parties tend to maintain that there is only one fair position – their own. But while some situations and decisions are clearly unfair, fairness usually refers to a range of morally justifiable outcomes rather than discovery of one fair answer.


A fair person uses open and unbiased processes for gathering and evaluating information necessary to make decisions. Fair people do not wait for the truth to come to them; they seek out relevant information and conflicting perspectives before making important decisions.


Decisions should be unbiased without favouritism or prejudice.


It is important not to take advantage of the weakness, disadvantage or ignorance of others. Fairness requires that an individual, company, or society correct mistakes, promptly and voluntarily.

Caring is the heart of ethics. It is scarcely possible to be truly ethical and not genuinely concerned with the welfare others. That is because ethics is ultimately about our responsibilities toward other people.

Sometimes we must hurt those we care for and some decisions, while quite ethical, do cause pain. But one should consciously cause no more harm than is reasonably necessary.

The concept of citizenship includes how we ought to behave as part of a community. The good citizen knows the laws and obeys them – but they also volunteer and stay informed on the issues of the day.

Citizens do more than their “fair” share to make society work, now and for future generations. Citizenship can have many expressions, such as conserving resources, recycling, using public transportation and cleaning up litter.


Based on Making Ethical DecisionsJosephson Institute of Ethics

Universal value

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A value is a universal value if it has the same value or worth for all, or almost all, people. Spheres of human value encompass morality, aesthetic preference, human traits, human endeavour, and social order. Whether universal values exist is an unproven conjecture of moral philosophy and cultural anthropology, though it is clear that certain values are found across a great diversity of human cultures, such as primary attributes of physical attractiveness (e.g. youthfulness, symmetry) whereas other attributes (e.g. slenderness) are subject to aesthetic relativism as governed by cultural norms. This objection is not limited to aesthetics. Relativism concerning morals is known as moral relativism, a philosophical stance opposed to the existence of universal moral values.

The claim for universal values can be understood in two different ways. First, it could be that something has a universal value when everybody finds it valuable. This was Isaiah Berlin‘s understanding of the term. According to Berlin, “…universal values….are values that a great many human beings in the vast majority of places and situations, at almost all times, do in fact hold in common, whether consciously and explicitly or as expressed in their behaviour…”[1] Second, something could have universal value when all people have reason to believe it has value. Amartya Sen interprets the term in this way, pointing out that when Mahatma Gandhi argued that non-violence is a universal value, he was arguing that all people have reason to value non-violence, not that all people currently value non-violence.[2] Many different things have been claimed to be of universal value, for example, fertility,[3] pleasure,[4] and democracy.[5] The issue of whether anything is of universal value, and, if so, what that thing or those things are, is relevant to psychology, political science, and philosophy, among other fields.


Perspectives from various disciplines


Philosophical study of universal value addresses questions such as the meaningfulness of universal value or whether universal values exist.


Sociological study of universal value addresses how such values are formed in a society.

Psychology and the search for universal values

S. H. Schwartz, along with a number of psychology colleagues, has carried out empirical research investigating whether there are universal values, and what those values are. Schwartz defined ‘values’ as “conceptions of the desirable that influence the way people select action and evaluate events”.[6] He hypothesised that universal values would relate to three different types of human need: biological needs, social co-ordination needs, and needs related to the welfare and survival of groups. Schwartz’s results from a series of studies that included surveys of more than 25,000 people in 44 countries with a wide range of different cultural types suggest that there are fifty-six specific universal values and ten types of universal value.[7] Schwartz’s ten types of universal value are: power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Below are each of the value types, with the specific related values alongside:

Schwartz also tested an eleventh possible universal value, ‘spirituality‘, or ‘the goal of finding meaning in life‘, but found that it does not seem to be recognised in all cultures.[8] Some consider love to be a universal value.[citation needed]

See also





  • Bolin, Anne, and Patricia Whelehan (1999). Perspectives on Human Sexuality. SUNY Press.
  • Diamond, Larry Jay, and Marc F. Plattner (2001). The Global Divergence of Democracies. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Jahanbegloo, Ramin, (1991). Conversations With Isaiah Berlin. McArthur & Co. Reprinted 2007, Halban Publishers. ISBN 1-905559-03-8, ISBN 978-1-905559-03-9
  • Mason, Elinor, (2006). ‘Value pluralism’. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Accessed 13 Nov 2007).
  • Pettit, Philip (1996). The Common Mind: An Essay on Psychology, Society, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Schwartz, S. H. (1992). ‘Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theory and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries’. In M. Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25). New York: Academic Press: 1-65.
  • Schwartz, S. H. (1994). ‘Are there Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values?’. Journal of Social Issues, 50 (4): 19–45.
  • Schwartz, S. H. and W. Bilsky (1987). ‘Toward a Universal Psychological Structure of Human Values’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 550-562.
  • Sen, Amartya (1999). ‘Democracy as a Universal Value’. Journal of Democracy, 10 (3): 3-17.

External links



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                   U n i v e r s a l
h u m a n   v a l u e s

Part ll

The primary most important human knowledge


The primary most important human knowledge
is knowledge and understanding of the very most basic
and universal human values

Without knowledge and understanding
of the very most basic human values nobody can give
a direction to one’s life that makes sense.

Most basic values and responsible decisions
Knowledge and understanding of the very most basic human values is of basic impor- tance to any human in the world, to make truly responsible decisions, and to give a responsible direction to one’s life; and also to give a truly responsible direction to the development of one’s children.
And without awareness of the very most basic human values our life is bound to be like a plaything of the winds, or a vessel out of control . . .

Most basic human values and politics
Anybody in politics who is not aware of the most basic human values is unable to make responsible decisions and to give direction to economic, social, or environ- mental development etc. of his or her country . . .

Most basic human values and development
of science and technique

Knowledge and understanding of the very most basic human values is also of basic importance for any scientist and technician, to give in a responsible way direction to the development of science, technique and human development . . .
And this applies also to any creative individual in the broadest sense.
Any development in science and technique not based on the very most basic human values can be futile, or can even be harmful or destructive to human development and to future humanity
. . .
We can think of e.g. humane eugenics, humane GM, computer development and robotization, and environmental effects of agricultural eugenics and GM, etc. etc.

Premises to values
standards and human qualities

Highest values, standards and human qualities
Only the highest universal human values can be seen as most basic human values and only universal and indispensable social standards can be seen as most basic human standards, and only natural evolutionary established human virtues can be seen as universal and as most basic human / moral qualities.

Universality of values
To be universal, these most basic human values have to be realistic and generally acknowledged empirical values, and basically independent of any religious belief, culture, or (non-universal) philosophy.

Universal social standards
For protection of these highest human values, and to make them realizable for every individual also generally acknowledged social / moral standards are needed.
The most basic social standards are those which are most needed to avoid a menta- lity or behaviour against our highest human values.

Universal moral qualities
For realization and maintaining our highest human values also acknowledgment and development is needed of our most important and most basic human virtues; which means our highest social / moral qualities.
The highest and most basic moral qualities are those which are essential and indis- pensable for realization of our highest human values.

Universal basic education
Up till now the almost only educational source of moral (culture-dependent) values, standards and virtues in the world have been religions.
However with the growth of wealth and general decline of religions in modern western and westernized societies this education has by and by declined as well.
And many can be observed in our modern world of today living in an almost total un- awareness of basic human values and social / moral standards and natural human virtues, and in an increasingly materialistic and narcissistic mentality.
Hence the premise that our contemporary modern world is in an urgent need for a universal and religion-independent social and moral education.

O v e r v i e w

Theses :

Most basic universal human values

Life itself   Common individual value, most basic universal core value.

Happiness   Common individual value, most basic universal core value.

Love   Common individual value and social value, most basic universal core value.

Peace   Common individual and social value, circumstantial value.

Freedom   Common individual and social value, circumstantial value.

Safety   Common individual and social value, circumstantial value.

Intelligence   Common individual and social value, a virtual value.

Respect   Social value of the moral standard of respect.

Equality   Social value of the moral standard of equality.

Justice   Social value of the moral standard of justice.

Nature   Common value, physical value.

Human health   Common individual value, physical and mental value.

The function of most of these basic values is to make it possible for every human to realize or maintain the very highest or most basic universal core values of life, love and happiness.

Sequence and importance
Values have been sequenced and categorized as much as possible and more or less according indispensability.
And the value of intelligence is seen here as also containing social intelligence, and hence also all basic human virtues.

Popular “core values”
Many popular so called “core values” are often actually “core virtues”, which are seen as very important and valuable and hence called then “core values”; such virtue-values like e.g. honesty or courage, are in general institutional or corporate “core values”.

Theses :

Most basic universal social standards

Respect prevents respectless, antisocial, hostile and criminal behaviour.

Reliability prevents misuse of trust and faith, and respectlessness.

Equality prevents arrogance and respectlessness and is needed for justice.

Justice prevents egocentric, respectless and hostile behaviour or decisions.

Peace prevents respectlessness, conflict, enmity and war.

Freedom prevents domination, respectlessness and oppression.

Safety prevents respectlessness and endangering of others.

Responsibility prevents endangering of others and inhibits antisocial behaviour.

Respect for nature prevents destruction of nature and animal cruelty.

Constitution and rule of law are in general based on moral standards.

Thesis           Respect is the most basic social standard, from which
all other basic social standards can be derived

Thesis                 The function of these social / moral standards
is to protect the highest human values, and to make
them realizable for every individual.

Evolutionary determined
These social standards have been evolutionary determined, because they have been derived from our evolutionary established human virtues.
Reliability from integrity, respect from empathy and human-friendliness, equality from realism empathy integrity and modesty, justice from justice, and freedom peace and safety from human-friendliness empathy and loyalty.

Most basic
These social behavioural standards are the most basic ones, for they are those which are most needed to avoid a mentality or behaviour against our highest human values.

Social standards against egocentrism
All universal social / moral standards are against human egocentrism, and aim to prevent an egocentric respectless behaviour. Hence our moral standards are most important when we are in a state of frustration anger or negativity.

Standards and basic values
Many of these basic social or moral standards can also be seen as basic human values, and vice versa; these are in general the standards which are not basically individual human virtues.

Guideline concepts
These standards cannot be forced on anybody or any society, but they can only function as a behavioural and educational guideline, and as comparative verification concepts. They can only be desired and agreed upon, and then also expected.
Social standards have a stabilizing function on our morality and social behaviour.
However of much higher importance to our morality are our basic human virtues; for standards have mainly an outer behavioural function and virtues have in the first place an inner function; they shape our mentality and identity . . .

Theses :

Most basic natural human virtues

Integrity needed to experience love and happiness, and implies reliability and truth.

Human-friendliness implies respect, helpfulness, reliability and creates peace.

Empathy causes helpfulness, sharing and respect, and needed to experience love.

Loyalty implies respect, helpfulness, empathy and sharing.

Justice implies reliability, empathy and respect.

Modesty avoids or diminishes egocentrism, arrogance and greed.

Respect for nature saves nature from human misuse, pollution and destruction

Responsibility-awareness avoids respectless behaviour.

Realism needed for responsible decisions and veracity.

Humane idealism needed for solidarity and unity of peoples in the world.

Positive creativity for prosperity and realization of universal human values.

Intelligence needed for understanding, human health, environment and prosperity.

Evolutionary established
These natural human virtues or moral qualities or highest mental qualities have been determined and established by the evolutionary development of our social human nature, which has made human kind to the most successful species on the earth . . .                                                                                           
( see also “human nature” )

Virtues and highest human values
The function of these evolutionary established human virtues is to make it possible for every human to realize the very highest human values, which means that also these highest human values are evolutionary determined . . .

Most basic and most needed
These human virtues are also the most basic ones, because they are essential and indispensable for the realization of our highest human values; as well individually, as for others in our society.
And also these moral qualities cause a social behaviour which stays far within our most important moral standards.
That’s why these social and moral human qualities are a basic necessity for any individual.

Moral virtues, the basis of a moral identity
Acknowledgement and identification with universal and basic moral virtues is bound to create by and by a morally positive and basically universal moral identity.
A morally positive identity has to be seen as the most basic prevention against all antisocial and criminal development.
These social and moral virtues shape our identity, and create a voluntary and natural inner discipline which goes far beyond the outer discipline of our moral standards . . .

Human virtues against egocentrism
All evolutionary established universal human virtues are against human egocentrism, for our basic social human nature is against egocentrism. And living according these virtues reduces our egocentrism.

Theses :

Basic human vices

Socially and morally bad qualities and states of mind
Respectlessness, antisocial egocentrism, antisocial collective egocentrism, misuse
of power, domination, injustice, corruptibility, cartel-formation, boundless blind and uninhibited greed, envy, vengeance, mercilessness, cruelty, macho mentality, hatred, jealousy, arrogance, irresponsibility, cunningness, demonizing, destructiveness, un- reliability, mendacity, falseness, hypocrisy, and cynicism and often also fatalism.

Frustration and egocentrism
All of these vices are ultimately rooted in frustration, anger, egocentrism (diminished, or blocked off empathy), or antisocial survival-mentality . . .

Knowledge of vices
Knowledge and understanding of these basic vices is needed for awareness of what is a wrong, immoral or antisocial behaviour, or a wrong, immoral or antisocial mentality.
And also is this knowledge important for all lawyers and judges etc. in courts, for translation and appliance of the laws.

M o r e  i n  d e t a i l

Life itself, one of our very highest
universal human values

Oldest most basic human value
From an evolutionary and ecological point of view the most basic human value must always have been life itself. It must have been the first and oldest most basic human value, for also today we still can see throughout the whole of nature any living being basically in a continuous struggle for survival.

Most basic, but conditional 
Life itself has to be seen as the most fundamental human value to any human being, for without life itself not any other human value can be realized. Life itself is a basic condition for the experience of any other human value.
However, at the same time the value of life itself is totally dependent on the two other most basic human values of love and happiness.
For, life itself without love and happiness is basically of no value . . .  Hence the sui- cidal tendencies of lifelong prisoners, or single old people who lost their only child, or terminal patients in a hopeless suffering, etc. 
So a condition for life itself as the very highest human value are the values of love and happiness; which hence also can be seen as very highest human values on their own.

Life as such, no empirical value
Life itself as such has also not any direct empirical value; this becomes clear when we think of a mental state of deep sleep, coma or anaesthesia. Then we are still alive, but don’t experience life.
The empirical value of life itself comes basically only from an experience of the other two most basic human values of love and happiness.
And from the strict point of view of our premisses that these values should only be realistic empirical values, actually life itself could not be seen as a highest human value. However if seen in a combination with the values of love and happiness it could be seen as also an empirical value.

When death comes close
The reason why we don’t want to die right now is not only our natural survival-instinct, but also we don’t want to see our life finished now, because we would like to enjoy our life still a little more; and this shows how much we love the world as we know it . . .
And the fact that confronted with death we would like to enjoy life still a little more also indicates the basic value of happiness.

Choice for life
As put in the beginning, life itself is also needed to experience love and happiness. And in dangerous situations it is obviously better to choose for our life instead of for love or happiness, for a choice for life itself could give us then the opportunity to experience happiness and love in the future.
However if we would ever come in the situation that we would have to choose for our own life or for the life of our child, we could choose for love and give our own life . . .

In a civilized society
From the previous can also be understood that our life is only our very highest human value when our life is in danger.
Hence in a civilized social society where everybody can feel safe and the continuation of our life is obvious, the value of our life itself is in general no issue; just a theoretical idea. And then the direct empirical values of love and happiness become the very highest human values.
And in old age when death comes closer, people may choose rather for quality of life than for extension of their life. And even if that quality of life is on costs of length of life.

Life love and happiness, universal core values
So the value of life itself, happiness and love do also depend on the situations we encounter in our life. In danger, the value of our life can be seen as the highest, and in general, when the continuation of our life is obvious, then love and happiness can be seen as our very highest human values.
Hence, life love and happiness can be seen as a basic group of our very highest and most essential human values, or most basic and universal core values.

Life, love, and our being
From an experiencial point of view, life itself, our being, and love and happiness are very close related, for life itself in us can be seen as the carrier of our conscious being, or most true identity. Without life itself, nor our conscious being nor love or happiness can manifest in us, for only from our conscious being, our most true identity, we can experience true love, and true happiness.
And, when we experience true love, we experience that love as part of our being . . .

Life itself and our health
With life itself is meant the phenomenon of life as such; but that phenomenon can also have a certain quality. And one of its qualities is what we call our health.
Our physical and mental health can also be seen as part of our highest human values for just as life itself, our physical or mental health can easily become a condition for our very highest human values of love and happiness.
However when we have to choose for our health or happiness, it can sometimes become a little difficult, if we think about smoking, use of alcohol or drugs, or choice for tasty or healthy food etc. Addictions show us that often we see happiness even as a higher value than our health, which means in the end our life . . .

Value of life itself, and survival-mentality
If only life as such would be our highest human value, then an egocentric survival- mentality would be one of our very highest human virtues . . .
However then humans would live just on the level of viruses or bacteria or so . . .
And although suchlike creatures may once have been our farthest ancestors, evolution has given us also the values of love, happiness and intelligence. So no reason to move back to that primitive level of life.

Happiness and love, two of our
very highest universal human values

Happiness and religions
In the ancient past the founders of the big religions in the world have already taught about the reward for a religious life by an afterlife in Paradise, Heavens, or Nirvana etc., to enjoy there an ultimate and eternal happiness.
And from this we can understand that in fact eternal happiness is the ultimate value of all religious people . . . For, nobody would like to go to any dull or miserable Paradise or so.

Materialism and happiness
Many materialistic people in the world have out of blind egocentrism created for them- selves such a prosperous and wealthy environment, that their material values have almost become their only values. (however basically, to create happiness . . . )
But if out of blind egocentrism and blind greed happiness is lacking here, then here is bound to be emptiness and poverty, in spite of the wealth.
So basically happiness seems to be also for materialistic people the highest value in their life.

Happiness, a universal core value
Next to life itself, happiness can be seen as the highest and most basic value in the life of any human being, for happiness is our highest quality of life, and it is in a subtle way connected with the experience of love and the essence of our human nature.
And happiness is also a highest universal human value, because all other universal human values support, or aim to realize a state of happiness.
Also is happiness a highest universal human value, because all universal and evo- lutionary determined moral standards aim to realize a state of happiness.
And as a last reason, happiness is a highest universal human value for also our evolutionary established human virtues aim to realize a state of happiness.
For these, and the just mentioned reasons happiness can be seen as a highest, most basic and universal core value in the life of any human being.

Happiness and love
The experience of happiness and love are very closely connected; in a state of happiness people become more loving, and in a profound experience of love also a deep happiness can be experienced.
And also the value of the life of our loved ones basically means the value of love, and it is their existence or presence which creates happiness in us . . .
Whether love or happiness is a higher value is not much of a point, for they are inter- connected and both can be seen as a very highest human value.
And it can also be said, that without love in one’s life there cannot be happiness . . .

Love as such
Love in a general sense can be best defined as feelings, or an experience of deep con- nectedness or oneness with any other human being, any animal, plant, tree, thing, or unnamable. However by some, love can also be experienced as something far beyond any comprehension, and totally indescribable.
Love may happen to us when we are able to be open to the beauty and nature of other people, or to the beauty and mystery of nature in general, or even beautiful things.
Hence the importance of a human-friendly mentality, which contains an attitude of openness to the basically loving nature of others . . .  And the state of openness out
of human-friendliness implies also an openness and friendly attitude to the whole of existence . . .

Love, a universal core value
Love is also the essence of the experience of beauty, gratitude, joy and true orgasm; and also is love the essence of friendship, empathy, loyalty, justice, true respect for nature, and positive creativity, and even of responsibility-awareness, humane idealism, trust and reliability . . .
Love is the essence of the experience of anything beautiful and anything that makes life worth living, and a basic condition for happiness.
Hence love has to be seen as one of our most basic and universal core values.

The taboo on love
Most people can more or less see love as one of the all important aspects of their life, as it is a basic aspect of our sex life, and it is the “cement” in all of our human relation- ships, and it is that what creates happiness and makes our life worth living.
However also for many, speaking about love is almost a taboo; because it is about a vulnerable state of being, and in our (survival) life we have to be strong and invulnerable, and hence basically macho . . .  In fact, in our egocentric survival life we have to deny and ignore love, otherwise we cannot be tough, impressive and competitive . . .
And hence for many, thinking and speaking of love has become a taboo; we don’t like it out of fear for vulnerability . . .
However, this also means fear to experience love, and fear for truth . . .

Love and our “core-virtues”
Openness is a basic aspect of the basic virtue of human-friendliness, but openness is also a basic aspect of our basic human virtue of empathy. And our empathic ability is also needed for the experience of love between people. And also, if not in the first place, our basic human virtue of integrity is a basic condition for the experience of love. For if there is no integrity, there can also not be any true identity; and love can only be experienced out of our most true identity. (And the same counts for beauty, gratitude, and true happiness . . . )
Hence these three basic human virtues can also be called: our human “core-virtues”.
Interestingly empathy is needed for the experience of love, and also can love be seen as the essence of the experience of empathy . . .

Openness and happiness
Openness out of human-friendliness to the beauty and basically friendly nature of other people, or to the beauty and mystery of nature in general, and openness to beauty, joy and love in general creates happiness.
And if we approach other people out of a state of human-friendliness and also happi- ness, it may also create some happiness in the other person if he or she is open for it; if the other is not too much burdened and obsessed by his or her problems, goals, duties, hurry or negativity.

Our inner barriers
Happiness is a quality of being which is only possible in absence of all kinds of inner barriers, like being obsessed by (eventually unconscious) frustrated desires, dissatis- faction, mental tension, discord, negativity, anger, stress, egocentrism, survival-menta- lity, fear, worry, jealousy hatred, vengeance etc. And the more we live in frustrated desires etc., the more our ability to experience love and happiness is blocked . . .
But if we can manage somehow to set free ourselves of all these inner barriers, then that creates a space for the positive experience of freedom, peace, beauty, love and happiness. This can happen spontaneously when we win a lottery or so, or in our holidays in a totally different country with lots of sunshine etc., where we can easily forget our inner burdens.
However, we can also learn the art to consciously free ourselves, in the way as men- tioned in part l. 
(A positive mental state)

Outer and inner conditions
General outer conditions for the experience of love and happiness are: safety and free- dom of conflict fear and repression, some physical and mental health, and in general also fulfilment of our most basic human needs.
And individual inner conditions for love and happiness are: freedom of our inner bar- riers, and an unburdened mentally relaxed state of inner friendliness, integrity and openness. And these mental conditions can be realized and enhanced by under- standing, some mental training like laughter training, learning the art of laughing about oneself, and all mental relaxation or meditation that contains integrity and inner friend- liness, or a state of inner laughter. And such a mental training can bring us also to the direct experience of our true and existential human identity . . .

Social aspects of happiness
Although our happiness and inner quality of being are in general our own individual responsibility, our happiness also still has some social aspects.
For, also others can influence our happiness and quality of life; for example by a respectless negative attitude out of anger and frustration, or out of an egocentric survival-mentality.
And here we can see how the mentality and quality of life of others can directly influence our own quality of life . . .

Well-being of others
However the mentality and quality of life of others can also directly influence our own quality of life in a positive sense, when others approach us with positive feelings of connectedness, sympathy, empathy, respect and integrity.
And in general can also be said that when we meet happy people it can create also some happiness in us because of our empathy.
All people feel attracted towards happy people, for happy people can for a moment make us forget our inner barriers and create a joined happiness.
And also here we can see how much the well-being of others in our society is also in our own interest . . . . .

Education, love and happiness
Another social aspect of our ability to experience love and happiness is our upbringing, education and conditioning by others. And in the first place this applies to the safety, security, and love given to us by our parents in our earliest and later childhood.
This aspect can strongly have improved or diminished our ability to experience love and happiness, as well as our ability to experience empathy or gratitude etc.
However as mentioned already, our ability to experience love and happiness can be regained or enhanced by certain mental trainings, learning the art of truly laughing about oneself, and all mental relaxation in integrity and a total inner friendliness.
On the physical level all mental training can be seen as a training using the plasticity of the human brain, in the same way as we can train our muscles in a gym.

Our highest human potential
Because  happiness and love can be seen as the very highest values in the life of any human being, our very highest human potential is also our ability to experience love and happiness and all the positive which is related to that. This potential can also be seen as a universal human talent, which we can choose to develop or ignore . . .
And in fact this can also be seen as our ability to experience the essence or core of our evolutionary human development . . .

Obstacles and advancement
Important however is our awareness and understanding of a negative egocentric state of mind as well as of our tense and obsessed way of living which many of us are totally unaware of.
And as said, basic for our ability of experiencing happiness and love are also our hig- hest moral qualities, like our inner integrity, our human-friendliness (openness), sense of connectedness and empathy. And also realism, intelligence and positive creativity and humane idealism advance our ability to experience happiness and love.

Society and culture
A social society with a culture based on our highest human values, moral standards and natural virtues offers the best circumstances for experiencing happiness and love, and all what is related to that.
However basic for this is in the first place refusing our “normal” egocentric survival- culture with all of her negative implications . . .

Love and religions
Love can also be seen as the core of all of the big religions in the world. Christianity knows the statement of Jesus disciple John: “God is love, and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him”.
And also the Koran states again and again: “Allah the Compassionate”, “the Merciful”; and the essence of compassion is love . . .
And in Hinduism and Buddhism the path of love leads to the to experience of oneness with the ultimate Reality, the Absolute, or Ultimate Truth, which can be seen as one- ness in an indescribable ocean of love and bliss. And also a statement of Buddha must have been: “God is love”.

Love can not be simplified as a virtue . . .
Virtues are in general individual qualities of mind which we can identify ourselves with, and which hence can become part of our ego-identity.
However the spontaneous incomprehensible, unintelligible and elusive phenomenon of love is not within our human power. Love can only be experienced as a phenomenon beyond our ego-identity; it can only befall or happen to us, when our ego-identity has become totally unimportant and forgotten.
Hence basically love as a virtue is not possible. However many mean with the virtue of love: a total openness, friendliness and integrity towards others, which however is al- ready included in the core-virtue of human-friendliness.
(see later, “Most basic human virtues”)
So love can basically not be simplified as a virtue; but one can be open for it by letting go all of our obsessions, frustrations, negativity, fears, judgments, expectations, and especially our egocentrism or self-importance. And the core-virtues of human-friendli- ness, empathy and integrity can help us then . . .

Peace, one of our highest
universal human values

Peace, freedom and happiness  
Peace has to be seen as a basic condition for freedom and happiness, for without peace there cannot be real freedom. Wherever there is fight, threat or hostility, our freedom and happiness are inhibited or totally prevented.
And for the highest level of freedom is also needed the highest level of peace . . .
Hence, to experience a higher sense of freedom and potential happiness, we have    to live in a society where is a higher level of peace, and also in a world with a higher level of peace . . .

Peace in our society  
For the realization of a higher level of peace in a society is in the first place needed the realization of a higher level of the moral values of safety, equality, respect, and justice and their corresponding standards.
And for the realization of these higher levels are also needed our basic moral virtues of human-friendliness, empathy, justice, loyalty, integrity, and modesty.
And this also means a more social society, which is also more free of egocentrism, narcissism and (more or less) psychopathic mentality . . .

Outer and inner peace  
For the experience of our highest and most basic human core values of love and happiness is basically needed a mental state of inner peace.
Because if we live in an inner enmity, hostility or defence, inner peace or happiness will be impossible. And although it is basically possible to be in inner peace without outer peace, for humanity in general can be said that outer peace is a condition for inner peace; for where is aggression fight or war, is also defence, stress or fear, and then there is also little place for our basic core values of love and happiness.

Peace, and well-being of others  
As in general outer peace is a condition for inner peace, the quality of life of every indi- vidual depends also on the peaceful mentality and state of being of every individual in his or her social group and in the society as a whole.
Hence, the freedom of frustration, well-being and human-friendliness and peace of all other people in our society and in the world is of every-bodies interest; and basically no stable society can be realized without peace.

Peace, a condition for prosperity  
Peace, the absence of enmity and hostility, is also a basic condition for trust and reliability, and the basis of all cooperation, creation and sustainable trade.

Freedom, one of our highest
universal human values

Freedom and happiness  
Freedom means the experience of unhinderedness, and to be as much as possible independent of the social pressure of others.  And freedom creates space for the experience of happiness, one of our very highest human values.
A basic condition for happiness is however the experience of an inner, or mental free- dom; freedom from all kinds of stress, worry, anxiety, problems, obligations and fears, often directly or indirectly caused by the respectless egocentric or power-oriented mentality of many others in our society . . .

Respect for the freedom of others
For many people in the world it would be much easier to attain to a little more happi- ness if others in their society would show a little more respect for the value of freedom of all other people in that society . . .  For basically an outer freedom from dominance, repression, burden, obligations and duties creates also an inner freedom from pro- blems worry stress and fears.
And this shows also a huge responsibility for politicians and all other people in power, and it asks for their integrity, empathy, and respect, for freedom is for any human a basic condition for happiness, one of our very highest human values.

Freedom and human creativity  
The value of freedom is also needed for our human creativity. Human creativity asks
for an inner, mental freedom, and hence in general also for an outer freedom. And just as for our happiness, basically a freedom from dominance, repression, burden, obli- gations and duties etc.
However also freedom from material or financial problems allows people to be unbur- dened and more focussed on the creation of a more prosperous or better world.
And in the near future new computer and robot technology could basically make that possible . . .

Freedom and prosperity  
Because human creativity in its broadest sense can be seen as the key to prosperity, prosperity also needs freedom, for creativity needs freedom.
Freedom, in the sense of freedom of disposal or possession, freedom to act, freedom of expression of vision and opinion, freedom of creation or production, freedom to orga- nize, freedom of entrepreneurship and freedom of trade.
And without these freedoms creation of prosperity has shown to be almost impossible, and hence freedom can be seen as a basic condition for prosperity . . .

Freedom, based on a universal human morality
Although many think regarding morality about a confinement of human freedom, a general acceptance of a basic universal morality creates a sense of freedom for everybody.
Human morality only confines an unlimited individual freedom. However unlimited free- dom is only possible for someone living individually and totally alone; not for humans living in a social society . . .
Hence the basic human value and sense of freedom can ultimately only be realized
by a universal human morality, for morality means moral virtues and moral standards, and as mentioned also respect for the freedom of everybody.

Safety, one of our highest
universal human values

Safety, a basic need and basic value
Safety has to be seen as one of our most basic human values because it is one of our most basic human needs, and a search for safety is the very basis of our evolutionary developed social human nature.
Millions of years ago already our far ancestors have learned to find their safety in their social group. And the value of safety in harsh savannah circumstances has made us to the super-communicative, super-cooperating and potentially super-intelligent social species we are today.

Need for safety, and social society
So in the first place safety has to be seen as a basic human need; the human need to be free of threat, fear and survival-stress.
And without social safety in a society people tend to live out of their individual survival instinct, and long term insecurity creates then by and by an egocentric survival-men- tality. And people with an egocentric survival-mentality become easily antisocial and human- and society-hostile.
Hence our human safety has to be seen as one of our most basic human values.

Safety, freedom and happiness
In general can be said that only in safe circumstances people can feel really free, for as said already, freedom means in the first place inner freedom; freedom from fear, frustration, anger, survival-stress and other misery.
However, if in a society is much criminality and lack of safety, this creates fear, stress and desire for safety; and if that desire is frustrated, discord, anger and egocentrism may come up in us. And as mentioned, freedom from fear, stress, frustration, anger, egocentrism and other misery is a basic condition for the experience of our highest human values of freedom, peace, love and happiness.

Safety, relaxation and feeling at home
Also in general can be said that only in safe and secure circumstances people can feel really relaxed and human-friendly; and the mental relaxation of inner freedom in safety is needed to really enjoy our human core values of love and happiness.
And that’s why safety is also a basic condition to feel somewhere really at home.
And this means also in our country and in the whole world . . .

Intelligence, one of our highest
universal human values

A quality of a society
If we take the meaning of the word intelligence in its broadest or evolutionary sense, then human intelligence can be seen as one of our highest human values.
And although basically intelligence is an individual human quality and an individual value, it can also be seen as a basic quality of a human society in our common interest. Hence it can be seen as a very high individual, and also social value.

Most basic human intelligence
Understanding and knowledge of our human nature, and understanding and knowledge of our most basic human values, moral standards and moral virtues and our ability to experience empathy, and our human potential of spontaneous positive creativity can be seen as some of the most basic aspects of human intelligence, for they are needed for the realization of our very highest human values.

Intelligence and prosperity
The value of human intelligence applies also to the creation of prosperity and well- being for all people in harmony with nature and ecology which we are all part of.
Prosperity and well-being are as well based on creativity as on science and tech- nology.

Intelligence, human nature and ecology
Our human intelligence is also of basic value and importance for our human ability to live in harmony with nature and ecology, depending on our knowledge and respect for nature and ecology and understanding our dependence of it.
Hence also understanding our own modern egocentric and greedy human nature as well individually as socially and politically, is of basic importance.

Intelligence and survival of humanity
A tremendous challenge to our human intelligence is also our human ability to coope- rate on a global scale, and to avoid catastrophic global developments, like global climate change, global population growth, the global ecology problem, and the global nuclear (war) problem. These very biggest problems of humanity show the urgent need for a “global intelligence”, and the very basic value of human intelligence on a global scale.

Human respect, one of our highest
universal human values

Spontaneous human respect
The most basic principle of any social community are feelings of connectedness which come out of our perception, empathy and awareness that the other human is basically as we are ourselves. This creates trust and a friendly attitude towards the other.
Out of this empathy and the awareness that the other is basically as we are ourselves and the resulting feelings of connectedness we feel a natural and spontaneous respect for the other.

Enforced respect
Although many people think in the first place of enforced or commanded respect when the word respect is mentioned, we can ask the question if enforced respect is respect at all; for more likely it is just fear. Because as soon as the enforcement is gone, that respect will be gone as well.

Respect by impression
Respect out of impressive or over awing behaviour or achievement is in general also known as respect, however in fact it might be more impression or admiration.

Respect is basic
To live truly social is a happening in understanding, respect, peace, freedom, equality justice, reliability, trust, loyalty, connectedness and unity, of which respect can be seen as the basis.
Respect can be seen as the basis of most of our other social values like peace, free- dom, justice, equality etc. for respect is needed to create them.
And only in such a society the highest human values of love and happiness can be realized at most for everybody, and that’s why natural human respect has to be seen as one of the highest of our social human values.

Respect for us
Respect as a social value means in the first place the value of the respect of others for us; for everybody needs and wants to be respected. However this we all have in com- mon, and it connects us; hence respect is a social value.

Respect from others, and our own respect
So most people agree immediately when it’s about the value of respect if it’s about the respect from others for them.
However, when it is about their own respect for others it can become a little difficult.
For as already mentioned, respect towards others becomes difficult if we live out of a state of frustration, anger and egocentrism, or out of a narcissistic or materialistic survival-mentality.
However if we are able to change that mentality to a little more social, altruistic, and empathic, our natural spontaneous respect can show up again.

Respect to be earned
Natural and spontaneous human respect can only be earned by integrity, veracity and truly social behaviour. Not by just some impressing or over awing behaviour.
True respect is a spontaneous phenomenon, which comes basically out of the under- standing that deep down the other person is the same as we are ourselves.
So nobody wants to behave respectless towards a really true and friendly person, unless one has a very narcissistic psychopathic or human-hostile mentality.

Respect, and sense of one’s own dignity
True respect for other humans, the society, humanity, and for nature which we are all part of creates a sense of one’s own dignity, as well as a sense of responsibility for the well-being of others and for nature.

Human respect against “might makes right”
The value of the moral standard of respect can also be seen in its contradiction with the antisocial (but by many accepted) principle of “might makes right”.
Might makes right can be seen as basic for all domination, oppression, humiliation and crime. Might makes right means the law of the jungle, and belongs to the basic life- style of criminals, psychopaths, and Machiavellians . . .

Equality, one of our highest
universal human values

Standard and value
Although equality is most important as a universal social standard, this standard should also be seen as a very basic social value, for equality supports and stimulates an equality-based and empathic way of thinking, and empathy can be seen as the very basis of all natural human morality and social behaviour.
Our assumption of a basic human equality helps to focus our awareness on the basic qualities and nature of others and to see that the other is basically as we are ourselves which creates our human empathy and spontaneous human respect.
In that way equality stimulates our human morality and a social way of thinking and living, and also our mutual understanding and human-friendliness.

Equality for justice, peace and freedom
But equality is also the basis of other basic human values like justice, rule of law, human rights and democracy, and because of that also of peace and freedom.
And equality means also equivalence and it creates modesty and hence it prevents arrogance and all of its negative consequences.
Equality as the basis of justice, freedom and peace is needed to maintain our very highest human values of life, love, and happiness. And also this is a reason why equality should be seen as a very basic and universal human value.

Equality against narcissism
Another very important reason to call the moral standard of equality one of our most basic human values is that the standard of equality is against the development and expression of narcissism.
Equality is against the arrogance and narcissism of anybody in a position of power. We can think of politicians on all levels, CEO’s of banks, insurance companies, and all kinds of other companies and institutions.
Narcissism represses our human empathy, one of our most basic human virtues, and hence also our human respect; and because of its extreme egocentrism it also often creates an uninhibited greed . . . For, the more we have, the higher we are . . .
(higher in narcissism . . . )

The value of equality, evolutionary determined
The value of human equality is basically evolutionary determined by our physical equality and the equality in our physical human needs, in combination with our social human nature.
Equality is also a basic value to prevent fight caused by individual (testosterone) domi- nance drive, and to support the moral standard of respect.

Equality against “might makes right”
Also the value of equality can be seen as a prevention against the subversive and respectless mental attitude of “might makes right”.
The principle of might makes right is undermining and subversive to almost all basic and universal human values, and stands against almost all basic and universal moral standards, and opposes almost all basic and universal human virtues . . .

Justice, one of our highest
universal human values

Justice for freedom, peace and happiness
Justice is one of our highest social human values, for in general justice is needed to realize and maintain our highest human values of freedom, peace, life, love and happiness; and injustice can prevent or inhibit these highest human values of freedom, peace, life, love and happiness.

Basis of the value of justice
With the value of justice is meant the value of the realized moral standard of justice. And the standard of justice has come forth from the evolutionary established human virtue of justice, and the human virtues of empathy, intelligence and responsibility- awareness and from our evolutionary determined moral standards of respect, equality and peace.

Justice, a social value
The value of justice basically always means a social justice, for just is that, what is righteous in relation to others. And it can also be seen that our social value of justice is based on our evolutionary established social virtues as mentioned, like integrity, empathy, responsibility-awareness realism and intelligence, so basically on our evo- lutionary established social human nature.

Virtuous, and legal justice
The value of virtuously just behaviour has led to the moral standard of justice and to a standardization of justice in the form of a legal justice.
However standardized legal justice is not always complying with virtuous justice, hence legal justice has always to be translated by a judge by means of his or her sense of virtuous justice.

Justice against law of the jungle
The virtue and standard of justice also represent a very basic human value because they also prevent the law of the jungle of “might makes right”.
Seeing the fact that humans are basically the most social beings on the earth, might makes right is totally opposed to a civilized social society; it basically represents the monkey behaviour of high testosterone dominant males in the jungle. So the value of justice basically protects individual citizens from respectless, antisocial and (more or less) psychopathic / Machiavellian behaviour.

Need for justice
The established value of justice is basically most needed in societies with a lack of human respect, like all egocentric survival-societies. In a society with realized values of peace, equality and respect and the human virtues of human-friendliness, integrity, empathy, loyalty, intelligence, realism and responsibility-awareness justice is no more an issue . . .

Nature, one of our highest
universal human values

Awareness of dependence  
Understanding our physical dependence of nature, and our awareness of being part of it are needed to see the basic value of nature.
Man is part of nature, and our very human existence is dependent of nature and its ecology. And hence our highest human values of life itself and freedom, safety, peace, love and happiness can only be realized in harmony with nature . . .

Value of the earth itself
Theoretically, one of our very highest human values could also be seen in the earth itself. However the earth itself and the sun etc. can also be seen as part of nature, for the whole of the universe can be seen as nature. So the value of the earth itself has to be seen as included already in the value of nature.
And the value of the earth itself totally depends on its quality, which basically means the quality of nature on earth.

Value, in beauty and mystery
Besides our rational understanding of the value of nature and our awareness to be  part of it, only our ability to experience love, beauty, mystery and gratitude can create a really profound awareness of the value of nature . . .
Our seeing of its fragility, its immense beauty and its mystery is needed for a true understanding of its value . . .

Alienation and blindness
Our in evolutionary perspective extremely arrogant, egocentric and alienated mentality is the reason of our blindness for the value of nature.
Humanity has to come back to a profound realism and responsibility awareness.
And we have to free ourselves from our blind egocentric psychopathic and loveless mentality . . .

Human health, one of our highest
universal human values

Health for granted
Our physical and mental health has also to be seen as one of our basic and highest human values, for our physical or mental health can easily become a condition for our very highest human values of life, love or happiness.
However as long as our physical and mental health are in good condition we take our health for granted, and in general healthy people are not aware of their health; our health is obvious . . .

Awareness of the value of our health
However when we have caught some dangerous painful or deadly disease, we can suddenly become aware of the value of our health. And also we can become aware then of the dependence of our love and happiness on our health. And the more the ill- ness is painful, threatening or hopeless, the more our ability to experience our highest values of love and happiness can be inhibited or prevented. And mostly because of  frustration, sadness or depression . . . So only a mental training can help then . . .

Respect, our most basic
social and moral standard

The most universal and most basic standard
Respect is in the first place our most basic moral standard because it is also our most  important social value. Without natural human respect a community cannot be a social community, for without human respect there would be boundless criminality, chaos and survival-battle. That’s why our standard of human respect is so important and an indispensable universal standard.
To establish and stabilize a respectful behaviour in all situations, the moral standard of respect has to be kept as the most basic standard in any social society.

Respect, the basis of all moral standards
Human respect is also our most basic moral standard because all other basic moral standards like reliability, equality, justice, peace, freedom, constitution and rule of law, and also universal and basic human rights are all based on human respect.

Other view
It can also be said that human respect is the most basic standard, because all other basic human standards aim to create respect, or aim to prevent respectlessness.

Respect and right and wrong
Because of our liability to negative mental states a behavioural standard of respect- fulness is a basic need for any society.
And the moral standard of respect indicates whether our behaviour, decisions, or acts are right or wrong towards others . . .

All fields of social functioning
Respect is the most basic social and moral standard for all human behaviour, treating others, (political) decisions, (political) choices, agreements, rights, organization, laws, regulations etc.

Respect, regardless status or religion etc.
Because of our awareness of the fundamental importance of our human respect we also have to live according that most basic standard.
And regardless our rank, status or function, or race, religion, culture or sexual orientation etc . . .

Respect by education
Although our spontaneous natural human respect is most basic for all humans, a learned respectful behaviour by education and conditioning of good manners is also needed. For in case of frustration and anger we still can behave then more or less automatically in a more or less respectful way. And this can be consciously or unconsciously.

Respect, frustration and anger
Respectless behaviour of others can often create frustration and anger in us, and in a state of anger we tend to become very egocentric and to demonize the other; and in that way we become also respectless towards the other. (because of the demonizing the other is no more seen as basically we are ourselves)
The moral standard of respect and learned respectful behaviour may then to a certain level prevent respectless behaviour between people as well as the eventually following violence.
However the more frustrated, egocentric, psychopathic or narcissistic we are, the more difficult it will be to behave in a respectful way.

Respect and tolerance
Respect also creates tolerance; and the general level tolerance in a society can only be increased if also the general level of respect has increased. Because if there is only more tolerance in a society, respectless and more or less psychopathic and narcis- sistic people will misuse that tolerance by respectless behaviour.

Fake or cunning respect
Fake respect can be observed in seemingly respectful behaviour out of an expectation to be able to exploit, misuse or cheat someone etc.
Many people know this disgusting behaviour of others, but are not aware of their own fake respect.  It often comes out of a more or less (unconscious) egocentric human- hostile mentality or state of being, or out of a more or less psychopathic, narcissistic or malicious mentality.
This kind of fake respect feels different from the mentioned learned respect to avoid hostility or a fight.

Respect, no human virtue
If human respect would be established as a human virtue this could easily lead to hypocrisy; for in a morally positive culture people tend to add virtues to their identity or to their ego which can create exaggerated artificial and fake respectful behaviour.
But addition of empathy to one’s ego is basically something invisible and tends to create true empathy which creates true respect.

Reliability, a very basic
social and moral standard

A standardized virtue
Reliability is basically a standardized virtue, derived from the most basic virtue of integrity, which cannot be standardized, for it is basically an individually aimed human quality; eg. to be honest and true to one selves. Reliability is the outcome of integrity, and socially aimed.
Although reliability is basically a standardized virtue, (an individual quality) it can also be seen as a behavioural social standard.

Reliability, a basic need
Reliability as a standardized moral virtue is one of the most basic needs for all human relations, and as well for all human cooperation and friendship as for sustainable trade, for reliability is a basic condition for trust.
Hence reliability should be seen as one of the most basic social and moral standards, almost as important as human respect.

Misuse of trust
Misuse of our human trust means an abuse of human vulnerability; it means might makes right, and has a similarity with misuse of power and the law of the strongest; immoral, antisocial, human-hostile and basically criminal . . .
Also antisocial cartel-formation means a misuse of trust in the free market, and corrup- tion of government officials means a misuse of trust in governments and rule of law.

Reliability against “might makes right”
The Machiavellian principle of “might makes right” is based on egocentrism and lack of human respect, and hence it basically also means unreliability.
Might makes right can be seen as the basis of all imperialism and all political domi- nance, as well as of all dominance, oppression and humiliation in general, and it basi- cally shows a hostile attitude, which means a basic unreliability. Hence the standard of reliability can also be seen as against the antisocial principle of “might makes right”.
And this can also be seen in a geopolitical sense . . .

Culture of deception trickery and fraud
Modern western and westernized societies are more and more dominated by a “culture” of temptation, befooling, deception, trickery and fraud, and the law of the jungle.  All based in blind egocentrism, survival-mentality, blind greed and a misuse  of trust. Reliability has for many almost become a taboo . . .
And as such our modern societies become more and more immoral, antisocial,
human-hostile, and basically criminal, psychopathic and chaotic . . .

Effects of reliability
Reliability out of our basic virtue of integrity means to keep one’s word and being loyal in difficult circumstances etc. It creates trust and respect of others and it creates feelings of connectedness, friendship and loyalty.
If we imagine a world in which everybody is truly reliable and respectful then everybody could blindly be trusted and be our friend . . .

Equality a basic social and moral standard

Fundamental human equality
Human equality has evolutionary been established in our human physique and nature.
All humans in the world share the same basic physical qualities, the same basic phy- sical needs, the same basic mental qualities and the same basic social qualities; and so also the same social needs, the same sexual needs, the same basic values, and the same human nature.

Equality and human respect
Human equality is also the basis of our spontaneous human respect, for respect as already explained, comes forth out of our basic understanding that the other is basi- cally as we are ourselves; and this basic understanding is needed to experience empathy. And we can not feel empathy or respect for a person which we have demo- nized, for the demonized person is for us no more as we are ourselves . . .

Equality and justice
The most basic aspect of general human justice is a basic human equality; for also human  justice is based on the understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves, and on our human empathy . . .
And so also for laws and rule of law human equality is basic; for the law is supposed to be just, and everybody has to be equal for the law.

Equality development and narcissism
Human arrogance is basically an egocentric denial of human equality; an imagination or delusion to be higher or better than others.
We can easily become arrogant if we have some special talent or development; for then in certain situations our function is of a higher value than that of others, which may easily create contempt and respectlessness towards others.
And also if there is a desire to be higher than others, it can bring us to inflate our ego- identity; but the social standard of equality has the potential to diminish or prevent such narcissistic tendencies.

Human uniqueness
Basic human equality doesn’t mean however total equality; every human being is basically unique in his or her character, talents, development and personality.
Hence human equality should be seen as a general and basic equality; and especially in the sense of our social human nature and our human nature as such.

Functional inequality
Human differences in talent, development or gender etc. can often create a functional inequality. Women in general can do certain jobs better than men in general and vice versa. And also nobody wants an open heart operation by a local butcher; in that situation a surgeon is of much more value. But also nobody wants to buy a ham- burger made by a surgeon who knows nothing about spices and tastes.
Human equality should be seen as a general and social equality; and not as a func- tional equality, for our talent, development, gender, or race etc. can be different.

Democratic equality
Democratic equality can only be a basic human equality, for all humans are different in knowledge development and understanding.
And basically from a logical point of view there can be no basic moral standard of democratic equality where there is not at least a general equality in knowledge, moral understanding and development.
Hence the basic importance of mental development of all voting people in any demo- cratic state . . .
And hence lack of equality in knowledge moral understanding and development in a democratic state asks for a “merito-referendal democracy”.
(as mentioned in part lll)

Basis against negative discrimination
Basic human equality is also a very basic argument against negative discrimination, for basic human equality implies also basic human equivalence.
Although human differences exist undeniable, men and women, colour of skin, culture or religion etc., these differences can’t effect the general social equality and social equivalence of people

Basic equivalence of people
There is a basic human equivalence because as said, all humans in the world are of the same physical and mental nature, and men and women are of the same value for reproduction, and we all have the same basic human needs, the same basic human values, the same social and moral standards, and the same basic human virtues. And also do we share the same human weaknesses and vices.
And in the view of equivalence also all humans in the world share the same most basic and highest human potential; their potential to experience love and happiness . . .

Equality, common human qualities, and class
It can be observed that basically all humans share the same basic human qualities and weaknesses, and that all humans basically live out of their character, virtues, assumptions, desires and fears.
And all humans are, depending on conditioning and circumstances, susceptible to frustration, anger, wrongdoing, and in the end also criminality.
And all humans can be observed to be to a certain level egocentric, narcissistic, hypocritical or psychopathic.
And also are all humans basically susceptible to greed, envy, jealousy and vengeance.
Also can be said that all humans have desires and are susceptible to seduction.
And also all humans do make mistakes . . .
So no civilized person in the world can think of him or herself as a higher class of people . . .

Equality against class society
A higher class of people can not be a better class of people, for a better class of peo- ple can basically only mean a more intelligent and virtuous class of people; and a more virtuous class of people means also more modest, more empathic and human- friendly, more sincere, and more loyal . . .
And also, the more intelligent and virtuous we are, the less egocentric, arrogant and narcissistic . . .
But a higher class of people in the sense of only more rich, means basically more pos- sessive, egocentric and narcissistic. So basically such a higher class of people can in the end only be seen as a lower class of people . . . . .

Justice, a basic social and moral standard

A standard, based on a virtue
The universal moral standard of justice is based on our natural human virtue of justice which is needed to realize our highest human values of peace love and happiness.
Out of our understanding of the value of our virtue of justice the moral standard of justice has been established; hence we wish and expect everybody to behave in a just way.

The meaning of justice
Just means what is good and what is right. And just is that, what is righteous in relation to others, and righteousness means also justice.

The function of justice
The function of the universal moral standard of justice is to promote a just way of thinking, decision making and behaving, and to prevent as much as possible injustice. This, to realize for everybody as much as possible the highest human values of peace, love and happiness.

Justice, equality and sharing
The standard of justice is basically about the understanding of basic human equality and of right and wrong in sharing or distribution of food, material values, wealth and prosperity.
However justice is also about human equality for reward, punishment or inconve- niences, or suffering; or about price settings, payments, salaries etc.
And also is our standard of justice about the sharing of immaterial values, like knowledge, education and opportunities for development etc . . .

Justice and intelligence
Although basic for justice are equality and equivalence among people, also empathy, respect, and our human intelligence are of basic importance.
Equality among people is a natural moral standard and also respect is a natural and basic moral standard. However also our natural human virtue of empathy is very important in the appliance of our standard of justice.
The standard of justice is based on the understanding of basic human equality and on the logic of equal proportions; and justice is also part of our social intelligence.

Justice and egocentric survival-society
Human egocentrism inhibits and prevents our human empathy, and so also our natural human respect and our virtue of justice; and hence so much injustice in an egocentric survival-society, and hence also the huge need for the moral standard of justice.
In an egocentric survival-society people in general think in the first place about justice in relation to themselves; and injustice towards others is not so much an issue, for that is their problem . . .
In a really social society justice for everybody is also an issue of everybody . . .

Global justice
In general we think of justice in terms of our social situation or our society. However justice can also be seen in a global perspective.
Justice, in the perspective of chances for life, education, development and well-being. And we could ask ourselves the question, if there is any empathy, loyalty and respon- sibility- awareness in us, by which we could support a global justice in that sense.
And although the standard of justice as such can be seen as a universal standard, there may also be additional details of cultural or religious nature, such as: justice only for us, the better people . . .

Peace, a basic social and moral standard

A condition for happiness
Peace means an absence of hostility, enmity, aggression, fight and violence. And as peace must be seen as a general condition for happiness, peace should also be seen as a basic social and moral standard.
But as all other moral standards not a standard which can be forced upon anyone, but as a universally agreed and desired ideal. A general and universal standard for any social group of people or society, and for the world-community as a whole.

Peace against war
Peace as a universal and basic moral standard is also a universal and basic moral standard against war; it makes a decision for war (offence or retaliation) basically as wrong and immoral.
Of course defence and /or disarmament of an aggressor still can be needed in our contemporary world, but there should always be a readiness for a cease-fire and negotiations to come to peace.

Solving conflicts
Peace as an agreed universal moral standard means also an agreement that all disagreements and conflicts in the world have always to be solved by negotiations.
And if these disagreements or conflicts are between states, then the only premise for negotiations has to be the assemble of the United Nations.

Peace and war-crime
Apart but also connected with the moral standard of peace, should any decision for war in the sense of offence or retaliation basically be seen as a crime. For it always means the respectless killing of masses of innocent people, and it always means a lifelong misery for even more traumatized people.
And any decision for offence, not supported by all, or almost all nations in the world, should basically be seen as a war-crime . . .

Power, egocentrism, and malice  
Only frustrated, angry, narcissistic, psychopathic or blind egocentric people do not respect the universal moral standard of peace. For, frustrated egocentric and narcis- sistic, or more or less psychopathic people can easily become power-oriented, arro- gant, malicious and immoral.
And in general such people and especially politicians, are not aware of their often collective egocentric or narcissistic career-oriented mental state. Hence so many
wars and revolutions are still going on in our world of today.

Peace, not a basic virtue
Although peace is one of our highest human values and most basic moral standards, it should not be seen as one of our most basic human virtues, for the most basic virtues of human-friendliness, empathy, loyalty, justice, responsibility-awareness, humane idealism and intelligence are already far more than sufficient to maintain an inner and outer peace.
But certainly a peaceful mental state can be seen as very valuable and virtuous in most situations in human life, for it can prevent or reduce aggression of others and it supports love and happiness.

Freedom, a basic social and moral standard

Freedom out of respect
All human dominance, repression or hindrance restrains or prevents the freedom of others, as well as their potentiality to live in happiness; for all dominance, repression and hindrance create frustration, tension, resistance and enmity.
Because of its basic value for every human, freedom has also to be kept as a basic and universal moral standard.
The social and moral standard of freedom is based on our natural human respect. We can allow others to be free out of our basic human virtue of empathy, and our empathy and integrity create our respect for the freedom of others.

Common interest
Also our respect for the freedom of others allows others also to respect our freedom, and this makes us understand our common interest, and the value of freedom as a basic moral standard.

Limited freedom
Any human freedom has to be seen however as a basic freedom. For by the nature of things human freedom has always to be seen as a limited freedom.
Our human freedom is limited by the freedom of others, and by our human virtues and our moral standards and laws.
Nobody can claim freedom on costs of others, or on costs of the freedom of others. Hence the need for our basic human standard of respect, and our human virtues of human-friendliness, empathy, loyalty, justice, responsibility-awareness, realism, and intelligence.

Freedom, society and government
Because of the basic human value and basic moral standard of freedom some people are in favour of freedom from all authority and even government, and often they are basically in favour of anarchy. And any interference of authorities or government with their life they experience as an injury to their freedom. However such kind of freedom
is only possible if one lives totally isolated in a desert or so.
As soon as we are part of a society there is interference of that society in our lives. There has to be a rule of law for those lacking moral understanding and moral virtues. And there has to be an intelligent, sincere and respectful government to control the nature, structure, and well-being of our society, and to give direction to the develop- ment of our society.
And the denser a population, the more we tend to interfere in the freedom of others, and the more social and empathic our culture has to be . . . or, the more rule of law and government will be needed . . .

Freedom and democracy
To prevent an intelligent, sincere and respectful government from making mistakes,
the government can also be advised or put under control by sincere and intelligent citi- zens, representing also minorities, and citizens with different visions or opinions. This, to protect the most basic values like the freedom, peace and well-being of all citizens.
Also is possible, a more basic and direct democratic system, where a government is guided in her decisions by the vision and wishes of all intelligent and sincere citizens, by means of a voting or polling system, and also advised and/or controlled by a body of specialized representatives of the citizens. 
(see part lll)
In this way there can be a maximum protection of the individual freedom and well-being of every citizen.

Freedom of expression of opinion
Freedom of expression of opinion of citizens is important for any government, to be able to know the wishes, frustrations, contentment, and level of well-being of all citizens. And responsible government is impossible, if there are no reliable poles,
and  if there is no freedom of expression of vision and opinion, and freedom from oppression, threat and fear
. . .

Freedom of speech, and responsibility
Freedom or right of expression and speech of truth are limited by our standard of responsibility. Basically we are responsible for all of our acts, and hence also for all of our expressions and speaking, and the consequences of it . . .
If e.g. the consequence of our speech or expression endangers the lives of other people, then nobody can deny a moral responsibility, even when the direct responsi- bility for some loss of life is with others . . .

Freedom of religion
Here it is basically about an inner freedom, which however also has a behavioural, and often also a social aspect of connectedness and sense of unity.
However this social aspect can easily derail into the psycho-social phenomenon of collective narcissism and chauvinism, which has basically nothing to do with religion.
And narcissism basically tends to arrogance and a demonizing of other religions which may be seen then as competitors . . .
Basically, freedom of religion cannot contain the freedom to demonize, or the freedom to interfere in the religious or non-religious freedom of others . . . . .   And hence the teaching of any authentic religion can never be hostile to other religious or non-reli- gious people . . .   And the teaching of a religion can also never be against or exclude universal natural human virtues and universal moral standards, like: integrity, human- friendliness, empathy, justice, modesty, reliability and human respect . . . . .

Freedom of thought
Freedom of thought has to be seen as one of the most basic human freedoms.
Even more basic than freedom of speech of truth, for speech of truth could eventually still harm somebody, but freedom of thought cannot.
However the question can be asked if a basic freedom of thought also means freedom of criminal thought, or freedom of planning a crime.
In case of a cancelled impulsive planning of a crime it basically should not be seen as a crime; for e.g. out of momentary anger we could often wish to harm someone, but we control ourselves and never commit the crime.
However there can be no freedom of premeditated plans of terror or so, for this in general implies a dangerous criminal mentality . . .  And hence even a cancelled plan for a premeditated crime can in general be seen as a sign of a criminal mentality.

No freedom of mentality . . .
Freedom of thought doesn’t necessarily mean freedom of mentality, for mentality also means a certain level of morality, and a mental attitude, and a certain identity.
And a criminal mentality means a society-hostile attitude and way of thinking and behaving, and a (more or less) society-hostile identity. And a society is extremely vul- nerable for criminality, for it is based on trust, human-friendliness and human respect.

Thesis:   There can be no freedom to live in a criminal mentality.

Criminal mentality and freedom
A criminal mentality means a society- or human-hostile or eventually nature-hostile attitude and way of thinking, based on a blind egocentrism, blind greed or personal interest, and on a lack of empathy, respect or responsibility, and/or on lust for use of power, or based on an evil, criminal or immoral identity.
Nobody with such a mentality should be allowed to live in freedom until he or she has been acceptably re-socialized, regardless what punishment such person has served, for release would mean responsibility for the next crime of such person . . . . .

Some basic and universal human freedoms

Freedom of speech of truth

Freedom of expression of vision and opinion

Freedom of possession

Freedom of entrepreneurship

Freedom of movement

Freedom of trade

Social freedom of partner choice

Freedom of thought, belief, and religion

Freedom to obtain euthanasia

Freedom from dominance and repression

Excluded freedoms
Basically there can be no individual freedom to constrain the freedom of others, propa- gate or teach immorality, break laws, harm people within the laws, to lie, deceive and slander, demonize groups of people, exploit people as we like, reproduce as we like, pollute as we like, or exploit or destroy nature as we like.

Safety, a basic social and moral standard

Human value and social standard
Although safety in the first place has to be seen as a basic human value it has also
to be seen as a basic moral standard; and for the same reason, that safety is a basic human need. A basic human need to be free of danger, fear, frustration and individual survival-stress.
The social standard of safety protects individuals in a society from insecurity and fear, and diminishes egocentrism and an individual survival-mentality.
Also is it needed to protect the basic human values of life itself and of freedom, peace and happiness, and to allow a natural and social human society.

Taking risks on other people
The moral standard of safety also prevents people from endangering other people’s lives or health by bringing them under possible risks of accidents, or human mistakes.
In big populations we can think of food safety, safety of products, technical installa- tions, chemical plants, nuclear plants, and safety in transport etc.
Acceptability of very small risks can be decided by democracy, local democracy, or by a government using local poles.
However best by merito-referendal democracy.
(see part lll)

Safety in a political perspective
The standard of safety has also to be seen in a societal/political sense, as safety of income, job, and safety from criminality, and safety from conflict and war etc.
In general our safety is strongly dependent on the basic intelligence, and especially the respect and reliability of people in power and on their moral virtue of responsibility- awareness . . .
Hence all corrupt, narcissistic and more or less psychopathic people should be kept away from all responsible jobs . . .

Responsibility a basic social and moral standard

Responsibility and trust
Responsibility is an indispensable moral standard, for by nature humans tend to trust others and hence we expect others to behave or make their decisions in a respectful and responsible way.

Responsibility against egocentrism
Responsibility as a moral standard is needed to prevent irresponsible egocentric or irresponsible collective egocentric behaviour or decisions.
In combination with the basic virtue of empathy the standard of responsibility may cause a more social and human-friendly behaviour.

Responsibility against misuse of power
The moral standard of responsibility also prevents or inhibits an irresponsible use of power and misuse of power. It makes people in power more aware that they can be held responsible for their decisions and acts.

Risks on costs of others
In combination with the moral standard of safety, responsibility as a moral standard also prevents people from taking risks on eventual costs of others and endangering of others and their lives.
As already mentioned we can think of food safety, safety of nuclear plants, chemical plants etc. And also in a political sense, as responsibility for causing political conflict or even war.

Responsibility against antisocial behaviour
The moral standard of responsibility also inhibits more or less harmful or antisocial behaviour and to a certain extent even criminal behaviour. However only for those without a distinct criminal mentality.

Respect for nature, a basic moral standard

Misuse and destruction of nature
One of the most important fields of human respect is also our human respect for nature which we are all part of.
A basic moral standard of respect for nature has to protect nature from over-exploita- tion, misuse and pollution, and from destruction and eradication of species.
Understanding of our human dependence of nature and awareness of being part of a precious and vulnerable ecology can help us to accept the moral standard of respect for nature.

Global lack of environmental rules
The moral standard of respect for nature is of urgent and fundamental importance because there is a disturbing global lack of legal rules to prevent pollution, irreversible nuclear and chemical pollution, over-exploitation and destruction of nature and irrever- sible eradication of species.

Respect for nature and cruelty against animals
Respect for nature is also an important moral standard to prevent cruelty against ani- mals. Cruelty against animals is against our basic human virtues of empathy and rea- lism, (animals can suffer from pain, misery and fear) and against our highest human value of love, and against our natural human virtue of respect for nature.

Preventive effect
The moral standard of respect for nature may prevent those with a lack of development and understanding and those with a very egocentric or narcissistic mentality to pollute, harm or destroy nature.

Constitution and rule of law

Basically all national constitutions in the world define the foundations of their states.
In general constitutions can be seen as a set of rules, defining the organization of a state, and the concentration, distribution and division of power, and aiming to safe- guard basic values, ideals and rights of the citizens of that state.
So basically a constitution can be seen as a set of most basic rules of law, and as the basis of all subsequent rules of law and system of judicature.

A constitution as a moral standard
A constitution and subsequent rules of law can basically be seen as organizational and behavioural standards, which are in general aimed at realization of basic political ideals based on human values, like peace, stability, freedom, prosperity, or (social) justice, but also on religion, culture, national pride etc.
And rules of law are in general based on moral standards, like respect, reliability, jus- tice, peace, safety and responsibility. And as far as this is the case, a constitution and rules of law can basically also be seen as moral standards.

Constitutions values and power
Most constitutions and rules of law in the world are only based on some of the basic human values as mentioned, or sometimes on non-universal values like specific reli- gious values or standards.
However as they also establish concentration, distribution and division of power, inclu- ding the lawmaking power, they may without the most basic human values often also contain a selective, or even perverted morality, such as:  “might makes right”. . .

Common global and universal basic constitution
Any sovereign state is basically free to define the details of her constitution; however, by comparison of all constitutions in the world it may be possible to define some basic and universal aspects of all constitutions.
And next, states might out of comparison gradually harmonize their constitutions towards a finally universal global constitution . . .

Basic content of constitutions
All constitutions in the world should basically in the first place state the very highest values and most basic moral standards of that state. For, all constitutions lacking that statement can basically be seen as in vain . . .
And all constitutions should basically also state the function of governments, and define, confine and divide the power of the governments and local governments and all of her members. This, because power attracts narcissists and (more or less) psycho- paths, and it tends to corrupt people.

Most basic function of all governments in the world
The most basic function of all governments in the world should be to protect, stimu- late and maintain all of the very highest values of all citizens, and to protect and edu- cate all basic moral standards, and to protect and educate all basic human virtues.
So not just to protect some materialistic, narcissistic or psychopathic values
. . .
And as life itself is one of our most basic values, a basic function is also to create safety of people for catastrophic cataclysms and war, and to cooperate with other governments on a global scale . . .

Constitutional rule of law
In general a constitutional rule of law can be seen as the generally acknowledged authority of a set of detailed behavioural standards based on moral standards which can be cultural or universal.
And in general is the purpose of a rule of law to basically prevent an injust use of power and to prevent the practice of “might makes right” (so also including all criminal behaviour).
In any state with a rule of law any citizen or governor is subject to that rule of law,  and hence should here also everybody have the right of access to a court of law, and should here also every citizen have the right of defence by a competent lawyer.

Universal basic rules of law
Just like all constitutions, all of the rules of law in all states in the world can be com- pared, and all common rules complying with universal human values and universal moral standards and virtues can be standardized as universal rules of law.
Next, every state can study her non-universal rules and compare them with the rules of other states, and eventually make adjustments, or suggest adjustments for the rules of other states, in order to create more universal basic rules of law.

Universal legal justice
As a humane ideal, all legal justice in the world should basically comply with universal moral justice, which basically means universal morality.

Constitution and rule of law as the basis of civilization
Constitution, rule of law, and a reliable judicature can be seen as a condition for any bigger civilization, for they are (or should be) based on basic human morality.
Based on the same social human morality as that of our ancient ancestors of some ten thousand years ago in their small band societies . . .
And as for the biggest part of human evolution our human nature has developed in small communities, our huge anonymous and unsurveyable societies of today ask for an organized and structured common morality, basically expressed in a constitutional rule of law.
However, although a constitutional rule of law can be seen as the basis of human civilization, for a civilized society and the realization of the highest human values is also needed an education to basic moral standards, and an education to a moral identity, based on universal moral virtues.

Rules and laws vs. morality and freedom
The more morality in a society, the more there will be social intelligence and tolerance regarding rules and laws, and the more sense of freedom there will be . . .
And  the more our moral understanding and moral virtues, and the more moral our identity, the less rules and laws will be needed
. . .
And also can be said, that the less rules and laws, the more sense of freedom and potential of happiness . . . However, this requires more morality . . .
The basic function of rules and laws in a civilized society should finally be that of a comparative verification concept for right and wrong; so basically a backing up function for in case of doubt, or in case of moral derailment or individual lack of morality.

Human-friendliness and integrity,
our highest moral qualities or virtues

As already explained, our human virtues are determined and established by our evo- lutionary developed social human nature.
And from a social and evolutionary point of view a human-friendly mentality is our most basic human virtue, for it implies a sense of human connectedness, and it is needed for a reliable cooperation, and for empathy and sense of essential equality.
And besides that, it also creates a human-friendly identity.

Openness for friendship
Human-friendliness means a basic positive attitude and an openness towards other people of our society, and as much as possible without negative prejudices or fear.
It means an openness for perception and experience of other people’s positive attitude, as well as an openness for our own feelings of connectedness and friendship.
It’s important however to see that the essence of real friendship is love . . .
And human-friendliness is the basis of empathy, natural human respect, helpfulness,  reliability, loyalty, justice, and peace.

Human-friendliness in a hostile world
Because human-friendliness is part of our human nature, it would not be needed as an established human virtue in a small human society of our evolutionary past.
But in a big modern society with so many unknown people and an egocentric survival- culture, it has an effect of socializing and improving that culture by creating a more natural and more social mentality.
However in an egocentric survival-culture it can in some situations be better to be in state of inner friendliness; this, to avoid negative approaches and misuse of our posi- tive attitude by others who are in a negative mental state, or with a (more or less) psy- chopathic or strongly narcissistic mentality . . .
And also an inner human-friendliness avoids a hypocritical friendliness . . .

Integrity, a very highest human virtue
Integrity means to be (as much as possible) true, good, just, loyal, modest, sincere, respectful to nature, responsible, and to be realistic, and to be honest and true to one selves . . .
And also from a purely individual point of view our integrity is one of our very highest human qualities; for integrity is the most basic condition for our ability to experience love and happiness, the very highest values in human life . . .
For as mentioned, for the experience of profound love, or total happiness it is needed to be totally true, and to be in our true human identity . . .
Also our highest human quality of human-friendliness is of no value without our inte- grity. This is also a reason why these both are our highest human qualities.

Integrity and inner integrity
Just as our human-friendliness, outer integrity can make us vulnerable in a hostile world; that’s why it sometimes can be better to be in a state of only inner integrity, so without directly notable outer signs of it. And basically our human integrity can only
be an inner integrity . . .
And also inner integrity can just as inner friendliness avoid hypocrisy.

Integrity and our ego-identity
Integrity is also the most important quality of a healthy and morally positive identity.
An ego-identity of as much as possible truth, human-friendliness, justice, loyalty, res- ponsibility awareness, modesty and realism.
And such an identity means also a positive self-image, a subtle sense of one’s own dignity, and a mental relaxedness and inner stability.
Integrity means for our ego-identity to be reliable, good, and valuable for others, and for our society, and for humanity in general, and to nature which we are all part of.
However, the purer our integrity, the smaller and less important our ego-identiy . . .

Integrity and our true identity
Next to a morally positive ego-identity our integrity also enables us to be in our most true and most basic human identity, and without our integrity true laughter, true joy, true happiness, and true love are impossible . . .
And the more true we are, the purer our integrity. Basically true integrity also means existential truth, and hence also our most true identity . . . And as mentioned, the more true we are, the deeper our ability to experience joy, happiness, love, beauty and gratitude in our life . . .
So just as we can say that the depth of our experience of love and happiness depends on the level of truth in our identity, we can also say that it depends on our level of inte- grity; and our very purest integrity allows us to experience our highest human potential in a certain moment and in certain circumstances.
And the less important we make our ego-identity, the purer our integrity and truth . . .

Integrity and honesty
Integrity is a much more basic virtue than honesty, for it also contains the quality or intention to be true, and not only to speak the truth, or share something in equality.
And sometimes honesty can be against our integrity; e.g. when our honesty would be harmful to others.
Honesty is a more narrow and outer quality, and integrity is a more broad and profound inner quality.

Integrity and harmful honesty
In certain situations in our life we may have to choose for integrity against honesty, and sometimes this can bring us in a dilemma, for the facts and situations in our life are not always clear.
Often we may choose to avoid a certain subject to avoid lying for the good. However sometimes to keep silent may also contain a lie . . .
And in such situations we can only follow our intuition which could bring us then even- tually to a “white lie”, which may feel bad, but might be needed in some special (e.g. dangerous) situation.
Sometimes we may not want to share information with certain people to avoid mis- understanding or to avoid harm to others. Here our integrity towards ourselves is of basic importance and maintains our sense of truth and dignity.

Integrity, veracity, truth and realism
Integrity means also veracity in thinking, and in general also in speaking or behaving and means realism and creates reliability.
Living out of our integrity makes us incorruptible and true, and makes us also staying with the (relative) truth, in realism in our way of thinking.
And our realism and integrity can become very important on moments in which the truth becomes inconvenient for us . . .  and then our integrity can help us to stay with that realism and truth.

Integrity against false self-esteem
Our human integrity is also against a false self-esteem out of power money or wealth, and against self-esteem out of egocentrism and narcissism.
Integrity forces us towards a self-esteem out of our positive creativity.
(later subject)
And integrity brings us also to a subtle sense of dignity, out of our true human identity.

Integrity against narcissism
Integrity is needed to become aware of an egocentric and of a narcissistic mentality and to see the negative aspects of it.
And integrity has next to love and independence to be seen as the main quality of our true identity . . .

Other important aspects of integrity
Integrity creates reliability and trust of others, and feelings of connectedness, friendship and respect.
And integrity is also needed for recognition of our moral standards and also to live according to them.
Also is our integrity a basic condition for the development of a lasting humane
(later subject)

Integrity against hypocrisy
Integrity is also the only means or counterpoise to mendacity, falseness and hypocrisy.
Hypocrisy is an (often subtle) falseness, to continue or gain the trust of others; but often with the aim to misuse that trust. Many politicians have been examples in human history, and also as representatives of their countries.
Hypocrisy can be seen as a sign of human weakness, or cunningness; and integrity as a sign of strength and also as a social strength.

Human-friendliness and integrity, two “core virtues”
Human-friendliness is needed for the experience of our very highest human values of love and happiness, and for a human-friendly identity, and is needed for empathy, natural human respect, helpfulness, reliability, loyalty, justice, and peace.
And also our human integrity is a condition for the experience of our very highest human values of true love and true happiness, a condition to be true and a condition to be incorruptible.
For these and previous reasons human-friendliness and integrity can next to human empathy be seen as two of our three most basic human virtues or “core virtues”.

Empathy, one of our highest moral qualities

The process of empathy
As already explained before, our empathy or empathic ability is our ability to identify ourselves with another human or even animal, and to reproduce the feelings of that other person.
However this as a spontaneous, uncontrolled and mostly unconscious mental process. Our empathy is in general triggered by our understanding and perception that the other human is basically as we are ourselves. This creates feelings of connectedness, and out of these feelings of connectedness we feel identified with that other human, and we become empathetic, understanding and sympathetic.

Openness for perception and experience
Openness for perception and experience is a basic condition for the experience of empathy, and the same openness is also needed for the experience of love.
And in general can be said that the higher one’s empathic ability, also the higher one’s potential and ability to experience love and happiness . . . . .
However also can be said, that the more egocentric, the lower one’s empathic ability, and also the lower one’s potential to experience love and happiness . . .
Hence the miserable way of life in a prosperous egocentric survival-society . . .

Egocentrism and empathy
The more important we make ourselves, the less important we make others and this diminishes our empathic ability. However also, to be more empathic diminishes our egocentrism . . .  This is also a very important reason why empathy should be seen as one of our very highest human virtues or qualities. In fact equal to integrity and human-friendliness . . .

Empathy one of our three core virtues
As focussing on our human empathy diminishes our egocentrism, and as human empathy together with human-friendliness and integrity is needed to experience the very highest human values of love and happiness, and as it is also the basis of human compassion and altruism, empathy should be seen as one of our three human core virtues.

Empathy and circumstances
In general can be said that basically our egocentrism inhibits or prevents our empathy; however our egocentrism is not a stable phenomenon. In some situations like anger, frustration, stress or fear we will be more egocentric than in other situations. And in a state of strong egocentrism we repress our empathic ability by making the other unimportant or by even (often more or less) demonizing the other.
Hence our human empathy also depends on our circumstances in life.

Empathy hatred and jealousy
Also in a state of hatred or jealousy our human empathy is prevented and totally blocked off; so no mercy for those we hate . . .
However hatred and jealousy can only be diminished and resolved by understanding and . . . empathy . . . . .

The core virtue of empathy can be developed
The very awareness of our egocentrism and our negative or indifferent judgment or even hateful attitude towards others and the negative effects of it on our own quality of life can make us more empathic. And especially our awareness and focussing on our integrity, human-friendliness and empathy can make us more empathic . . . Hence our core virtue of empathy can be developed . . .

Empathy and empathic ability
Since our “level” of empathy can be different in different situations and with different people, we can also distinguish between empathy as such and empathic ability.
Empathy can be seen then as the phenomenon as such, and empathic ability as our basic or momentary potential; for our empathy can be different in different situations. And as said, our empathic ability can also be developed, just as all of our other human virtues. And also, many more or less narcissistic people can have in general a low empathy and yet show a high empathic ability towards e.g. their children . . .

Egocentrism, empathic ability and love
There are many people with basically a high empathic ability and who behave yet very egocentric and indifferent or cold towards others.
Often it is our (unconscious) frustration, anger or ego-focussedness which diminishes or blocks off our empathy, even with people close to us. However as mentioned before already, it is this same ego-focussedness that diminishes our ability to truly experi- ence love, beauty, gratitude and happiness, all what makes our life worth living . . .

Empathy and different people
Our empathic ability can also be different towards different people. The empathy of a loving mother with her child will be different from her empathy with people she doesn’t know.
The more we know someone, the more can be our empathy; and especially the more we love someone, the deeper will be our empathy. This, because the essence of empathy can be experienced as love . . .

Empathy intelligence and love
Empathy can also be seen as a basic part of our human intelligence, for empathy is created by perception and understanding, and this creates feelings of connectedness of which the essence is love. And hence also love could be included in (emotional) intelligence.
But also, people with a (more or less) psychopathic or strongly egocentric mentality also have a diminished ability to experience love and happiness . . .

Evolution empathy and love
From an evolutionary point of view our ability to experience love must have come out of the evolutionary development of empathy; for empathy was needed for cooperation friendship and trust, and the essence of friendship and empathy is love, and even the essence of trust and reliability is love . . .
And from another evolutionary point of view, at least in the later part of human evolution human children have always been long time vulnerable, and hence they also needed a long time parental protection. And only children with empathic and loving parents can have survived in evolution. So basically there must also have been an evolutionary selection on empathy and love for children, and probably already long before the time that hominids became a social species.

Empathy and altruism
Empathy is the key to altruism. Without empathy there is no basis for natural sponta- neous altruism.
So, the more egocentrism, narcissism and psychopathic mentality, the less altruism. But also, the more frustration and anger, and /or demonizing, the less empathy and altruism. And the same counts for negative prejudices about people in misery . . .

Virtue of empathy prevents “might makes right”
Egocentrism can also bring us easily to the mental attitude and behaviour of “might makes right”. However our sense and virtues of justice and empathy can diminish or prevent our attitude of “might makes right”, and it stimulates in that way a respectful way of living.

Other basic functions of empathy
Our human empathy is also one of our highest universal moral qualities because it is needed for our spontaneous and natural human respect, a very basic social value; and respect is our most basic moral standard.
Also is our human empathy needed for our universal moral quality of justice, and for spontaneous helpfulness and loyalty, as well as for the sharing of wealth and immaterial values to enhance the quality of life of everybody.

Empathy and conscience
Empathy is also needed for human conscience, and to be aware of harming others and to experience responsibility-awareness.
Our human conscience is very important to all of our human relationships; it makes us able to say sorry for a harming behaviour or to make good or repair a damage.
Hence psychopathic people with a blocked out empathy are lacking a conscience.
This can often be seen in courtrooms where psychopaths cannot show remorse for their victims.

Empathy forgivingness and vengeance
Our human ability to forgive is directly dependent on our empathic ability and our human intelligence. However our obsession by feelings of anger and vengeance is a natural reaction when we are a victim of a crime. And in this state of mind we tend to demonizing, hatred and to mercilessness; some of our basic human vices . . .
And here we can also see the basic importance of explanation of criminals; about their background, and the motives and circumstances which have led to their crime . . .
And also can we see here the basic importance of our empathy, which can create an understanding, and finally an acceptance of what has happened.
However the more egocentric or the more psychopathic we are, the less our empathy and ability to forgive, and the less our ability to let go our demonizing and feelings of hatred, mercilessness and vengeance . . .  Hence in this case: the less empathy, the more negativity, misery and suffering in our life . . .

Empathy and re-socialization
Our empathy and also sense of justice are very important for our agreement with re- socialization of criminals, and also for our understanding of their background and the circumstances and influences which have led to their criminal development.
The principle of re-socialization instead of punishment is basically as well realistic as compassionate to convicts, for they get a new perspective of life, and are educated to a positive creative mentality and a morally positive identity and a basic moral under- standing.
However those who cannot accept this positive approach may tend to see re-sociali- zation as an extra punishment or vengeance, for re-socialization may often take more time than jail-punishment. However an innocent person mistakenly convicted, may come out very soon.

Loyalty, one of our most important
moral qualities

Basis of loyalty
Our natural human virtue of loyalty and our ability to be loyal comes forth from our feelings of human connectedness, and from our empathy, respect, responsibility- awareness and integrity, and from our natural human-friendliness. Basically human loyalty has been evolutionary established in our social human nature.
However in an anonymous individual survival-society many people have blocked their mutual feelings of human connectedness and empathy, and often even their human- friendliness; so in general human loyalty is here almost no more an issue . . .

Loyalty and friendship
Human loyalty means respect, helpfulness, sharing of material and immaterial values, and reliability; all things which are lacking in an individual survival-society . . .
However true loyalty also creates friendship, and true friendship also creates loyalty. Hence friendship also creates safety, which should basically be attractive in an ego- centric survival-society . . . But an egocentric survival-society means also a lack of empathy; so “what friendship”, and “what loyalty . . ?” And it means also fear to trust; so better be careful with friendships, and no loyalty . . .

Loyalty peace love and happiness
When we understand that loyalty is needed for true friendship, and that true friendship means also loyalty, it can also be seen that love is the core of friendship and loyalty. And then it can also be understood that friendship and loyalty can bring us towards our very highest human values of love and happiness and also peace.
Loyalty makes us altruistic and altruism creates happiness; and many know the expe- rience that a spontaneous giving creates more happiness than receiving . . .

Loyalty and justice
Our virtue of loyalty has also much to do with our sense of justice; our loyalty with people in need or misery when we are in a more comfortable position.
Or in a democratic state, our sense of social justice when it is about our political opinion about the fate and chances for development of the poor, and when it’s about the interests of minorities.

Loyalty to our society
In an egocentric individual survival-society many people also don’t feel too much to be loyal to their society. Out of the idea that if the society doesn’t care about me, I don’t care about the society as well.
In general our loyalty needs the basis of friendship, and our loyalty to our society and country needs to come out of our human-friendliness and our awareness that it is our society that allows and creates our prosperity and well-being . . .

Global loyalty
Global human loyalty is needed to realize a global human well-being, and to solve all of the biggest problems of humanity.
And of basic importance for global human loyalty is also our human intelligence; our understanding that peace, freedom and well-being of all people in the world is in everybody’s interest.

Justice, one of our most important
moral qualities

Need for the virtue of justice
The universal moral virtue of justice is needed to realize, support, or maintain our very highest human values for it supports the basic human values of equality, peace, safety and freedom which are needed for the experience of love, happiness and life itself.

Sense of justice and virtue of justice
Our virtue of justice depends in the first place on our sense of justice, and our sense of justice depends in the first place on our knowledge, culture and understanding, and on our empathy and respect for others.

Justice, equality and empathy
Justice is a universal and basic human virtue for it has been evolutionary established
in our social and human-friendly nature.
Human justice is an outcome of empathy, human-friendliness, respect, reliability, integrity, responsibility-awareness, realism and intelligence.
And of basic importance is our perception and understanding that the other human is basically as we are ourselves. This perception and understanding triggers our human empathy and human respect.
The virtue of human empathy is basic for our human justice, for our empathy makes us able to understand the needs, sufferings and way of thinking of others.

Justice loyalty and reliability
As mentioned, the virtue of justice is also strongly connected to our human intelli- gence and can even be seen as part of it. And the logic of equality, equivalence and equal proportions, and an understanding of our human nature, and an understanding of our human weaknesses and vices may also create compassion with others.
And hence the virtue of justice may also create loyalty and reliability . . .

Injustice and egocentrism
Egocentrism diminishes or prevents our human empathy, and so also our natural and spontaneous human respect and hence there is so much injustice in an egocentric or narcissistic survival-society . . .
And hence the common moral quality and mentality of justice is of basic need for any social society.

Modesty, one of our basic moral qualities

Modesty out of intelligence
Our virtue of modesty is created by our intelligence and out of our understanding of our basic human ignorance, smallness and vulnerability, and awareness of our basic exis- tential “rightlessness” and transitoriness, and out of our realism.
Modesty keeps our ego and self-importance within proportions, and hence modesty is against all human arrogance and narcissism, and against all kinds of impressive and macho-behaviour; it creates unpretentiousness.

Modesty out of other basic virtues
Modesty is also the result of the basic core virtues of empathy human-friendliness and integrity, and of respect. And modesty can also come out of loyalty, sense of justice, or responsibility awareness, or out of realism.

Refusal of arrogance
But also the refusal of egocentrism, arrogance and narcissism creates modesty; seeing the stupidity of arrogance and its denial of human smallness or basic human equality can create a refusal of arrogance, and in that way it also creates modesty.

Modesty against human greed
Obviously the moral virtue of modesty is also against all egoism and unlimited greed.
Human integrity and the basic human understanding of the gift of life can create an understanding of basic existential “rightlessness” and hence a basic modesty.
Every human on this earth is born with empty hands. And any possession in life is basically a present, and in the end anything in life we have to give back; regardless king or beggar.

Modesty and right to possess
But doesn’t hard work and creativity give us the “right” to possess ?  From a first view yes of course; but if someone else is meanwhile hungry or needy in another way, it looks totally different. Our empathy integrity and understanding of justice creates then a natural modesty.

Naturalness of human greed
The naturalness of our human greed cannot justify an uninhibited blind and boundless greed out of an indifferent egocentric survival-mentality; the greed of never enough . . .
Our human intelligence, integrity, empathy, respect and sense of justice can create modesty and diminish or even prevent our greed.

Modesty against “Might makes right
The natural human virtue of modesty is also against the antisocial idea and behaviour of might makes right and law of the jungle. And also against suppression of others and other groups of people, and basically also against nationalism, collective narcissism and chauvinism . . .

Modesty out of understanding and choice 
Modesty can happen spontaneously to us out of our understanding that we cannot change certain facts of life which we have to accept, or we can cultivate the virtue of modesty out of our understanding of the wrong, and the negative effects of the vice of arrogance. This may cause us to cultivate modesty out of free choice, by taking dis- tance and letting go of all of our arrogant and egocentric desires.

Modesty, desires and frustrations 
The virtue of modesty as a result of realism and our understanding of its value can make us more modest in our desires and also in our life-expectation for the future.
We have desires for what we don’t have, or for what is not; and this basically means that we live in unfulfilled desires, and if that becomes a long time story, it basically means to live in a frustrated state of being, with the consequence of egocentrism, and hence also a lack of empathy, human-friendliness, and love and happiness . . .

Modesty, ego, love and happiness
The more true our identity the less important and the more modest our ego. And also can be said that modesty as an ego-quality keeps our ego less important, which can make us to a more loving person if there are not too many mental burdens.
The more modesty and freedom of arrogance, and the more true and ego-less our iden- tity, the more we are able to experience love and happiness, our very highest human values.
And also the experience of happiness as such makes us more friendly, loving and tolerant and so also more modest.

Outer and inner modesty
Just like our human-friendliness and our integrity, our moral quality of modesty can make us vulnerable for people who want to take advantage of it. Hence in general it is better to live out of an inner modesty (although it can be difficult to hide sometimes).
And inner modesty also makes us less egocentric and less frustrated.
Outer modesty can also easily become a false modesty, and an inner modesty many people will not notice so easily.

Respect for nature, one of our most basic moral qualities         Thesis

Realism and responsibility-awareness
Human respect for nature has throughout human history been based on human aware- ness of human dependence of nature, and awareness of its mystery.
However in our modern time human respect for nature has to be seen as a very important human virtue; for it is needed for the protection of nature against all ignorant and hazardous human activity.
But respect for nature of modern man can only be created by our understanding of its value, its fragility, its beauty and its mystery, and by our realism and responsibility- awareness.

Man part of nature
Human respect for nature is one of our most basic human qualities, for man is part of nature and our human existence is dependent on nature.
And hence our highest human values of peace love and happiness can ultimately only become truly realized in harmony with nature.

Human respect and respect for nature
The basic human virtue of empathy is the basis of spontaneous human respect for humans among each-other; so there seems to be no need for a human virtue of human respect as such.
However human empathy with other humans does not per se create their respect for nature as a whole; hence the need for a separate human virtue of respect for nature.

Love to nature
The human virtue or moral quality of respect for nature is the most basic prevention of abuse of nature. More basic than the moral standard of respect for nature, for a virtue, or moral quality creates a mentality of openness for the mystery and for perception of the beauty of nature and in that way it also creates a spontaneous love to nature . . .
But the moral standard is more of a behavioural standard, and a behavioural compara- tive verification concept.

Respect for nature and animal-friendliness
Our human virtue of respect for nature implies also an animal-friendliness and respect for life; awareness of the mystery of life and our human empathy are here basic.
Our basic human virtues of empathy and realism make us aware that also animals can suffer from fear, pain and misery, and hence can also to a certain level experience
well-being and joy, and some even love and happiness.
And that’s why some animals can become friends and even very good friends with humans.

Responsibility-awareness, one of our basic moral qualities

Meaning of responsibility-awareness
With the basic human virtue of responsibility-awareness is meant our awareness of
our individual (or group) responsibility in regard to all of the consequences of our acts, decisions, words, involvements, or negligence etc. for others, or for nature which we are all part of.

Social responsibility
Our human realism is needed for our awareness of our social responsibility; our responsibility for all effects and consequences of our acts, decisions or words etc. towards others who can hold us responsible for our deeds etc.

Existential responsibility
Our existential responsibility-awareness means awareness of our responsibility regardless if someone can hold us responsible or not; e.g. our responsibility for secret pollution or destruction of nature, or inflicting unprovable or not (yet) noticeable harm
or damage to other people, animals or nature etc. So, our awareness of our respon- sibility out of the nature of things.
Realism and integrity are needed for an existential responsibility-awareness . . .

Responsibility-awareness and respect
Responsibility-awareness can make us more respectful towards others, the society and even towards humanity as a whole, and towards nature in general.
Our responsibility-awareness and respect are also of basic importance for our virtue of humane idealism.

Responsibility for our world
Responsibility-awareness also means awareness of our responsibility for the quality of life of others, and for our own respectless egocentric actions or decisions, and for our robot-mentality or misuse of power.
Also for the quality of our society and the world we are living in, and for the misery of other people in the world if we are rich.
And also awareness of our responsibility for our own fatalism and cynicism regarding changing our world . . .

Egocentrism and responsibility-awareness
One of the negative aspects of egocentrism is also a diminished or even absent responsibility-awareness. And mostly very egocentric people hate responsibility . . .
Very egocentric people are in general lacking empathy, a moral identity, and realism, and hence they can hate responsibility . . .
This also shows up in collective egocentrism, by the construct of collective respon- sibility which often means nobody is responsible . . .   Or, also in fragmented respon- sibility, where nobody is over all responsible.
Such situations can be found in bureaucratic institutions, hospitals, politics, badly managed companies etc.

Realism, one of our basic moral qualities

Realism integrity and truth
Although the human virtue of realism can also be seen as a part of our human intelli- gence, it can also be seen as a separate human virtue because realism means basi- cally a directedness towards truth. Realism is needed for veracity, and realism with integrity creates truth.

Realism and idealism
Realism is also needed for Humane idealism. Idealism without realism is of no value, for ideals not based in realism can never become realized.

Modesty and loyalty
Also is realism important for human modesty; for realism creates understanding of our human smallness and ignorance in the vast reality of existence.
And realism is also needed to see and understand the sufferings and misery of others, and our own involvement in it, which can create our loyalty . . .

Realism and narcissism
Our human virtue of realism is also against our (eventually subtle) human narcissism; it makes us aware of our basic human equality and humanity. So also of our arrogance and repressed empathy and distance to other people, and an inflated ego-identity.
And realism can also make us aware of the damage or harm created out of our (more or less) narcissistic mentality.

Realism and cognitive dissonance
Realism means openness to truth, consistency of thought, and keeping as much as possible to the truth in assumptions and beliefs.
Realism means veracity in the sense of devotion and adherence to the truth. It means also sincerity, uprightness and trustworthiness.
And realism gives no space to cognitive dissonance, and is against confirmation bias, cognitive bias, belief bias and wishful thinking.
Realism also means a readiness to change proven wrong beliefs.
And also is realism against untrue justifications of made wrong choices, and against denial of made mistakes and against denial of making mistakes.
Realism is against befooling one-selves and lying to one-selves.

Realism and positive thinking
Many people have taken the theory or philosophy of positive thinking as a guideline for their way of life. And on a first sight it seems of course much better than an exclusi- vely negative way of thinking. And on a first sight it also seems to work out positive and to create a positive mental state.
However exclusively positive thinking is against realism. And sooner or later that posi- tive thinking can prove to be against the reality of life.
When we meet people in our life with a high level of narcissism or psychopathy with very negative intentions we may have to pay a high price for our way of thinking, and fall back then in a negative way of thinking.
However a realistic way of thinking is almost always positive, for it keeps us aware of also the positive aspects of our life . . .

Other important functions of realism
Our human realism is also of basic importance for our responsibility-awareness, for our respect for nature, for our sense of justice, for understanding of our vices and mistakes and also for our reliability.
And also is realism needed for our awareness of our frustrations and egocentrism and for awareness of our narcissism and/or greed of never enough etc. and last but not least for our truth towards ourselves . . .

Intelligence, one of our basic moral qualities

A virtue because of its value
Intelligence has to be seen as a basic human virtue or basic human quality, for our human intelligence – if including our basic intelligence – is a human quality which is also one of our most basic individual and social values.
Hence human intelligence in the broader sense is a universal and basic virtue, and a value for every society and also a basic and universal virtue and value for the world- community as a whole.

Intelligence for peace
Human intelligence in the broader sense has also to be seen as a very basic human virtue, for it is of basic importance for our ability to live in peace in huge populations
on this earth.
This means that it is of basic importance for our very existence, and of basic impor- tance for our quality of life and for the realization of our very highest human values . . .

Other important functions
Our human intelligence is also a basic human virtue because it is needed for realism, justice, loyalty, responsibility-awareness, respect for nature, modesty, and humane idealism.

Awareness of our human nature
Our virtue of intelligence also includes an understanding and awareness of our human nature and a basic self-knowledge. This also means an ego- and identity- awareness and a certain inner modesty and an awareness of our human narcissism and other negative traits.

Our social intelligence
Awareness of our human nature is also the basis of our social intelligence and it also means an understanding of the indispensability of human morality to realize our very highest human values, as well for ourselves as for others and our society.
Hence our social intelligence has to be seen as one of the most basic aspects of our human intelligence
Human intelligence without this social intelligence can easily become a criminal intel- ligence, and hence is not a virtue at all . . .

Intelligence against egocentrism and narcissism
Our social intelligence also means an understanding of the negative aspects of human egocentrism, blind greed, narcissism and a (more or less) psychopathic mentality and the negative consequences of it for ourselves. And it also means to see the negative consequences of these for our society and for humanity as a whole.
Also our intelligence and understanding “force” us to live out of a morally positive iden- tity and to live out of our universal moral virtues.

Prosperity and well-being
Our human intelligence is also a basic human virtue because it is needed to create prosperity and well-being, and in that way also to create as much as possible of our highest human values of peace, freedom, love and happiness. And this for any human on the earth.

Intelligence and creativity
Human creativity can be seen as a very important part of our human intelligence, or it can also be seen as a human virtue as such, in the sense of a positive creativity; and in its broadest sense it can be seen as the basis of our prosperity.
However creativity also needs our intelligence, it needs understanding and insight and knowledge in the field of our creativity, productivity, or services.

Meaning of life and human destiny
Our intelligence is also needed to be aware of our main ego-identities and their func- tion, and also to become aware of our true identity.
And in that way is our human intelligence also of basic importance to understand and experience the deeper sense and meaning of our life, and to understand our evolutio- nary human development and destiny . . .  
(one of next titles)

Positive creativity,
one of our basic moral qualities

Creation of prosperity and happiness
Positive creativity is meant in the sense of positive for other humans, ourselves, our society or humanity, or for nature which we are all part of.
Positive creativity should be seen as a basic human virtue because it helps to create a more prosperous and happier world to live in, and as such it supports our very highest human values.
And any human work or creation can only be seen as positive when it supports directly or indirectly our highest human values and hence creates a more beautiful and /or happier world to live in.

Positive creativity basically a giving
Positive creativity can be seen as the basis of a truly “humane economy”, for any posi- tive creation means the creation of value, and makes a society more rich.
Positive creativity is basically a giving; and even when the created is sold . . .
And if truly positive, it makes our society more rich in the true sense of the word . . .
Positive creativity can be seen as the opposite of parasitism and cultivated greed; the mentality to basically only become materialistically more rich ourselves . . .
The virtue of positive creativity leads to a humane economy and to true prosperity, as the opposite of destructive prosperity out of an economy of greed . . .

Collective positive creativity
When different ways of creativity come together like financial, managerial, planning designal, productional, finishing off, etc. companies can flourish and attain to a high level of quality of their products or services. And people with a positive creative menta- lity tend to cooperate, for they are in the first place focussed on positive creation.
And a positive creative mentality also means a positive mental attitude and motivation for a chosen field of work or service in a company.
Joint creativity gives more than just a sum of creativity, this because of the phenome- non of creative interaction . . .

High quality products and services
The mentality of positive creativity also contains a certain idealism and perfectionism and a creative person is in a sense always critical and in search of improvements.
This mentality is not compatible with intentionally produced low quality products with the aim of selling soon more of the same products, or with the aim of selling more of (too expensive) higher quality products. And this means less disposables and more durableness and quality of products.
Hence any positive creative product or service can be of maximum quality for a reasonable price.

Positive creativity or parasitism
Basically every human has a basic freedom of choice to live out of a positive creative attitude towards his or her society, or out of a basically parasitical attitude towards his or her society and/or other societies, and to humanity as a whole . . .
A parasitical attitude basically also means a parasitical mentality and also identity, of which however many of us are not aware.
And in a sense a parasitical mentality and identity can be compared to a psychopathic mentality and identity. A very strong egocentric survival-mentality, and an exploitative   greed- (and predator) mentality without conscience, focussed on a misuse of power.
In general all capitalistic societies can be seen as more or less based on a parasitical mentality . . .

Positive creative use of money
Money should basically only be used as a means of exchange and rating of value, and as a means of creation in the sense of positive investments to help others to be posi- tive creative. The aim and mentality of making money with money is basically parasi- tical and basically a negative creativity, for it creates injustice towards the truly crea- tive and productive people, and it is also a waste of creativity . . .
And a positive creative use of money creates a realistic self-value and self-esteem, and a sense of one’s own dignity, and it gives meaning to one’s life . . .

A parasitical way of making money
In general a parasitical way of making money can be seen in the practice of making money by exploiting the misery, weakness, or weak position of others.
It can be seen in high or excessive wages of lawyers physicians and anybody in a position of power over weak people or people in distress or need.
We can also think of excessive profits of pharmaceutical companies, some private prison companies, funeral companies, hospitals, dentists etc. And also of exploiting of monopoly positions in business and of cartel formation etc.
However our way of making money can also be parasitical towards nature, in ecologi- cally destructive use of chemistry in agriculture, overfishing, environmental pollution, GM agriculture, deforestation, and causing extinction of species.

Positive creativity prosperity and nature
Prosperity should always be seen as prosperity in harmony with nature, for prosperity against nature is no prosperity at all; for mankind is part of nature, and dependent on nature in many known and unknown ways.
But up till now human creativity has often been a negative creativity and has created much “prosperity” against nature and so basically against the human race . . .

Positive creativity intelligence and freedom
Positive creativity should be seen as part of our human intelligence, and it also needs our intelligence, and also is it connected with human-friendliness, love, understanding and insight, for the human urge to create basically comes forth from that.
For development of the virtue of positive creativity are basically needed a morally positive identity, freedom, idealism and some level of well-being.

Totalitarian regimes and positive creativity
Totalitarian and dictatorial regimes with oppression by the terror of a secret police creates fear as well as an individual survival-mentality; and hence it also inhibits or prevents a positive creative way of thinking and a positive creative cooperation of people . . . Hence oppressive dictatorial and totalitarian states in general know not much prosperity . . .

Change of culture
Already since the rise of the first cities, humans must have by and by adopted the mentality and culture of individual survival mentality, which today can be seen all over the world, and which lies at the basis of narcissism, psychopathy, greediness and egocentrism . . .
However based on education and our social human nature by and by a transformation towards a new culture of society-focussed and society-friendly positive creativity can be seen as a basic human potential.
And basically nothing prevents humanity from freeing herself from this global and basi- cally antisocial individual survival culture and egocentrism with all of the misery it has created and still creates . . .

Humane idealism,
a new universal moral quality

Society- and humanity-ideal
With humane idealism is meant: to support or being in favour of a basic and universal society- and humanity-ideal, in the sense of realization of all basic human values for any human on the earth.
Humane idealism is based on our sense of responsibility for the quality of our society and on our sense of responsibility for the quality of life of all people on the earth.
Also is it based on our integrity, intelligence and moral awareness, and it tends to create more loyalty and involvement with all the people and peoples on the earth.
And humane idealism is also based on our awareness that all humans in the world  are basically as we are ourselves . . .

Humane idealism in everybody’s interest
Humane idealism can also be seen as based on the (collective) understanding that the quality of life of each and every individual depends also on the quality of a society as a whole, and in the view of e.g. global ecology, global warming, global politics and global economy also on the quality and mentality of humanity as a whole.
And humane idealism is also based on the understanding that the human-friendliness and well-being of all other people in our society and in the world is also of our own interest, and of everybody’s interest.

Humane idealism and global cooperation
Humane idealism has to be seen as a basic human virtue in advantage of every human, for it supports spontaneous loyalty and a willingness to human cooperation, and cooperative positive creativity.
Humane idealism means also a global loyalty, which stimulates global cooperation, and it creates global peace, safety, security and unity, and this creates also a global sense of freedom for everybody . . . . .
Humane idealism needs a morally positive mentality, intelligence and integrity, and it supports the very highest human values of all individual humans in the world.

Ancient social ancestors
Loyalty, helpfulness and free of charge cooperation must have been an obvious prac- tice of our ancient social ancestors, which can basically also be seen as including a band- confined humane idealism.
Hence humane idealism can also be seen as a society-supportive mentality extended or scaled up to humanity as a whole.

An evolutionary determined human virtue
For those who cannot agree with an ancestral societal idealism as a previously evolu- tionary established social virtue, it can also be seen as a new evolutionary determined or predestined and still developing human virtue.
Evolutionary determined or predestined by the coincidence of our clearly evolutionary established natural virtues, and our human global communicative ability, and the sheer number of humans on this earth today . . .

Development of humanity
Humane idealism means also a directedness at the most positive development of our society and of humanity. And this can also mean to support a basic education of human basics in our own society and in the world.
And it could also mean our own direct or indirect participation in such education and development, or to stimulate it as far as our possibilities allow us. And many small drops can make an ocean together . . .
But humane idealism also means to take a little distance from a selfish and ego- centric survival-mentality . . .

Humane idealism solidarity and unity
Humane idealism can eliminate to some extent social isolation of cultures within bigger cultures, and discrimination of cultures within bigger societies.
And humane idealism is needed for solidarity, unity, and a basic development of all people and peoples in the world, regardless culture, religion or race.

Humane idealism against narcissism and psychopathy
Humane idealism is also against a culture of narcissism and a (more or less) psycho- pathic mentality, and against an exclusive self-focussedness and egocentrism in gene- ral. All of these are more or less antisocial and more or less society-hostile.
Humane idealism implies a human- and humanity-friendly and social mental attitude.

Humane idealism against demonizing and discrimination
The human virtue of humane idealism is also against all demonizing and negative dis- crimination of other cultures, religions, or races, or sexual orientation. And it is focus- sed on loyalty, development, human equality, creative cooperation and harmony.

Humane idealism and multicultural society
Basically can be said that a multicultural society is not a real society in the sense of community and unity. It is a collection of communities living alongside of each-other in a (peaceful) coexistence. More or less like a federation.
And whether that coexistence is peaceful or not, strongly depends on common values, standards and agreement on moral qualities. Hence can be said that only a unity in moral basics can create a really peaceful multicultural society . . .
Humane idealism can be seen as totally in favour of a global multicultural society . . .

Humane idealism and prosperity
Humane idealism supports and stimulates positive creativity and positive creative co- operation in every society. Positive creative cooperation can be seen as the very basis of prosperity; as well in an economic or material sense as in an ecological perspective. And in an individual and social perspective also as a way of realization of our very highest human values.

Humane idealism against parasitism
Just as positive creativity, humane idealism is against a parasitical way of life, and against a parasitical use of money. And humane idealism supports and stimulates positive creativity, and a positive creative way of using money.
Humane idealism is basically aimed at the creation of a better world.

Humane idealism against “might makes right”
The moral quality of humane idealism also strongly opposes the Machiavellian prin- ciple of “might makes right” or law of the jungle, because humane idealism strongly supports the basic human values of respect, justice, and equality, as well as freedom, safety and peace; and also because it supports the basic moral qualities of empathy, justice, integrity and human-friendliness.

Humane idealism against political exploitation
Also in a political perspective humane idealism strongly opposes “might makes right”, and especially in the sense of colonialism, capitalistic exploitation and imperialism. This because of the respectless oppressive and often subtle extortive nature and the basic injustice of it.
However humane idealism is totally for respectful and creative win-win cooperation, which means in the end a win-win-win cooperation . . . . .

Prevention against future wars
Humane idealism also means a strong support for disarmament, global win-win coope- ration, creative cooperation and loyalty, and global peace; and hence it basically also means a prevention against all future wars . . .
And in this sense it could finally bring humanity to a certain maturity . . .

Humane idealism and political colour
Humane idealism has a stabilizing effect on any political system, for it is based on a sense of responsibility and tends to create peace and a positive creative mentality.
And it is politically independent and basically free of any right or left political direction. It can basically as well improve or support a (moderate) socialistic as a (moderate) capitalistic society.

Humane idealism against corruption
Humane idealism and other basic human virtues like integrity, reliability, intelligence, and responsibility-awareness make together a prevention against all forms of corrup- tion, cartel formation and nepotism in a society and in the world as a whole . . .
However our humane idealism in combination with our integrity and responsibility- awareness can sometimes be more important than our empathy and friendship with others . . .   And then our humane idealism totally depends on our integrity, dignity, intelligence and responsibility-awareness.

Supporting society and global unity
Humane idealism also means a support for our basic moral standards, and it gives us an extra reason to keep on to these universal standards. This has a stabilizing effect on the society, and the society-ideal stimulates positive creativity and hence supports prosperity.
Humane idealism is the only moral concept which supports a society as a whole, and the world-community as a whole . . .

Humane idealism and cosmopolitism 
Although it is totally natural to love one’s place of living, or one’s village or town and one’s country, global communication and humane idealism are by consequence going to make humans more and more world citizens in the future.
High resolution big screen images and high quality sound communication worldwide via the internet can make every place on the world accessible any moment and every- where. In combination with humane idealism this can create an unprecedented coope- ration and unity in the world.

Humane idealism and global social network
In our contemporary world with in general an egocentric and basically hostile survival- mentality everybody tries to live in a moral and social way within his or her small social network of family and friends. This small social network creates a sense of safety and security and a basis for some peace, love and happiness.
However this small social network could ultimately become a global social network of all of humanity, if there would be a globally agreed and accepted universal culture of human-friendliness, universal human values, universal moral standards and universal moral virtues . . .
By and by a similar empathy helpfulness and loyalty could be shared with the whole of humanity as in our small social network, and by and by also create a sense of global safety and security as a basis for the realization of our very highest human values.

Realistic idealism against fatalistic cynicism
Humane idealism has to be seen as a realistic idealism, for humane idealism is sup- ported by the realistic and practical individual advantages of it.
It asks however for our awareness of all the negative effects and disadvantages of the current global culture of egocentric and narcissistic individual survival mentality.
Humane idealism makes a counterweight to the weak negative and depressive men- tality of an egocentric and fatalistic cynicism regarding humanity and the future of humanity . . .

Ultimate outcome of humane idealism
Also the very concept of Human Basics can be seen as based on a realistic humane idealism and Human basics may create the starting point of a conscious movement of humanity in the direction of an ideal world. A development of humanity in the direction already predestined by our evolutionary line of development of many millions of years in the past.
It means a development towards a global society in which all people can live more and more in a state of freedom, peace, happiness, love and understanding. And this ultima- tely to a level of which nobody has ever dreamed of . . .
This means ultimately also a society in which every human can live without survival- obsession, anger, negativity, anxiety, anguish, stress, worry and pain. An extremely social society, where people care for each other and where everybody can feel at home. A truly civilized global society where every human lives out of his or her highest human qualities and can realize his or her highest human potential.

_       _       _     _      _     _      _

Purpose and meaning of life     Theses

Purpose of life, according to human evolution
From a first point of view reproduction can be seen as the basic purpose of life accor- ding to human evolution.
However also supporting the development of our children and others in the direction of the core development of evolution, in intelligence, love and happiness can be seen as the purpose of life according to human evolution . . .
This can however only be realized by living out of our evolutionary established human virtues and by supporting and stimulating the development of these virtues in our children and others . . .
And on these basics we can create more understanding and unity in the world, and a more beautiful, prosperous and happier world to live in, where every human can feel at home. And such a world can be seen as in harmony with the basic direction of deve- lopment of human evolution.

Direct empirical meaning of life
The direct empirical meaning of life can only be experienced in the direct existential experience of profound love, beauty and happiness, or such kind of experience beyond expression . . . And this can only be experienced from our (most) true identity . . .
Only out of such experiences we can understand what we are living for; and without any reasoning . . . It can reveal to us the direct existential and true meaning of our life . . .
However the more egocentric or psychopathic our mentality, the less our empathy and ability to experience love and the true meaning of our life . . . . .
This direct experience of meaning of life can also be seen as part of following the evo- lutionary purpose of life, or part of a religious meaning of life, or as part of giving mea- ning to one’s life by positive creativity.

Religious meaning of life
All of the big religions in the world contain a belief in a certain meaning of human life.
Besides this, truly religious people can sometimes in a profound religious experience experience an existential meaning of their life.
But for many people religious experiences may happen just on an imaginary level, which cannot be seen as a true experience of the meaning of one’s life.

Rational meaning of life in positive creativity
The highest rational meaningful purpose of one’s life can only be: to realize as much as possible the very highest human values, and as well for oneself as for others . . .
However for oneself, by doing so for others . . .   (!)
This, for creating happiness for others means also to create feelings of connected- ness, love and friendship with others. And it also means creating feelings of gratitude in others, which also has a positive effect on the love and the behaviour of others towards still others . . . And so it also means to take part in the creation of a better world and to support the evolutionary development of humanity . . .

Positive creativity
So in this view the best way to give our life a meaning is to give it a meaning for others. When our life is, or has been creative in a positive sense for others, for the society, humanity, or for nature which we are all part of, we basically create happiness.
E.g. for our children or other family, friends, club, union, town, charity organization, ecological organization, etc, or for anybody else.
And any positive creation in that sense has ultimately a positive effect on the whole of humanity, and also on the future of humanity. And as said this also means to support the evolutionary developing process of humanity, and in that sense it means to take part in the creation of a new humanity . . .

Value of our positive creativity
All the positive which we create in our lives means the creation of a more beautiful and better world; as well for ourselves as for the other people of our society.
And when we finally are going to die, the society will live forth; and all the positive which we have created for her or her people will keep its value; for it forms a shackle in the human evolutionary developing process, and is in that sense valuable as long  as humanity will exist . . . . .

True self-esteem
This way of giving meaning to one’s life creates also a sense of one’s own dignity and self-esteem. True self-esteem can only come out of one’s own dignity.
True self-esteem cannot come from possessions, standing, power, knowledge, career, or honour, for this is just “ego-self-esteem”. But self-esteem from our positive creativity and dignity has also the deeper aspect of our being; the deeper aspect of truth . . .

Condition for acceptance
A condition for acceptance of this way of giving meaning to our life is however rejecting our small-hearted egocentric and egoistic lifestyle and society-hostile or society- indif- ferent survival-mentality . . .
This way of giving meaning to our life is in sharp contrast with the senseless, needy, primitive and deathlike life of petty-minded egocentrism and never enough . . .
And true sense of one’s own dignity can be created out of veracity, truth and integrity, and even out of good-willingness.

Global culture of shared values and morality

Global human community
The availability of global communication via the internet is creating more and more unity in the world, as it increases by and by a global awareness of common interests, problems, threats and fears, and in the mean time of the basic equality of all people, as far as their nature is concerned.
However some more understanding of our human nature, universal human values, most basic moral standards and universal human virtues could strongly speed up this process of development towards more global unity.

Basic moral understanding
Also this philosophy of human basics is meant to create an understanding of the basic equality of people all over the world, especially in the psychological and social fields of our human nature.
And it is meant to create a basic insight and understanding of the relation between our human nature and universal human virtues and a universal human morality, as well as an understanding of the relation of universal human values with universal virtues and resulting social standards.

Global agreement on basics
Understanding of our common human nature and the most basic and universal human values and the most basic moral standards and universal human virtues can make up a universal moral basis for a global community.
However as put in the beginning, only a general global agreement on basic human values standards and virtues can make them globally accepted as universal, and by means of education create a global culture of universal values and morality.

Human basics and religions
Human basics can not be seen as against the basics of any religion, however it could contain from the point of view of some religions some religiously neutral universal moral aspects or subjects, which could also be seen as a general non-religious knowledge.
However as mentioned in the review it is also possible to implement Human basics excluding certain parts of it.

Foundation of morality
Most active religious people in the world will find the foundation of most or all of these universal moral basics in their own religion.
However for people not really belonging to an established organized religion, and also for agnostics and atheists, Human Basics contains a religion-independent foundation
of a universal human morality.

Foundation of universal morality
in moral understanding and a moral identity

Understanding human egocentrism
Understanding of the deleterious effect of our human egocentrism on our ability to experience our highest human values of love and happiness, and awareness of the distance, loneliness, frustration and misery it finally creates, forces us towards a social, altruistic and human-friendly mentality, which is also a basis for a universal human morality.
And also understanding our responsibility for the negative effects of our egocentrism
on other people, and on our society and the world as a whole can only bring us to a social and morally positive mentality.

Morally positive identity
The understanding of how our most basic human virtues have been evolutionary deter- mined and established in our human nature (remember also mirror-neurons and oxyto- cin) also creates an awareness of a basically right or wrong identity.
And understanding how the basic virtues of integrity, human-friendliness and empathy are indispensable for our ability to experience our very highest human values of love and happiness can only lead us to a choice for a morally positive identity . . .
And a morally positive identity is bound to create a morally positive way of life . . .

Our own interest
Understanding the misery and danger of a global survival-society and our own interest and need for a common universal human morality, and understanding our own interest in a global culture of humane idealism can be seen as an extra reason to choose for a morally positive identity and a morally positive way of life.

Giving meaning to our life
To give a meaning to our life by making it creative in a positive sense for others, our society, or humanity, or for nature which we are all part of creates self-esteem, and a sense of one’s own dignity, and also a morally positive identity.
Sense of one’s own dignity and self-esteem out of our value for others, our society, and/or humanity creates also a human-friendly mentality, which is also a universal and religion-independent foundation for universal morality.
This, because human-friendliness is a basic need for the realization of our highest universal human values as well individually, as for others in our society.
Also awareness of our human need for self-esteem and sense of dignity forces us towards a morally positive identity and way of living . . . 
(See also “healthy identity“)

Understanding the advantage and value
of a morally positive identity, and awareness of the
Thesis         negative effects of human egocentrism, and awareness
                   of the basic human need for sense of one’s own dignity
can make up a new foundation for a
universal human morality.

Humane idealism
The basic human virtue of humane idealism supports a global human-friendly attitude and global human loyalty, and a basic human-friendly identity, as well as a universal moral behaviour.
And it stimulates and supports the development of a universal global culture of basic moral understanding and agreement.

Foundation and aims of religious morality
The basic foundation of the morality of most religious people is their aim on obeying God or Allah, and their hope to get rewarded for good behaviour, and not to get punished by God or Allah. Or, as in Hinduism, morally just behaviour aimed at avoiding a return in a next life in a self-created miserable situation, and to come in harmony with the Ultimate Truth.
However also many modern Christians and Muslims live in the aim of being in harmony with God or Allah. And their ultimate punishment is seen then as hell in the sense of an eternal absence of God.

Foundation and aims of universal morality
As already explained, a universal foundation for human morality lies in understanding the negative effects of our egocentrism on ourselves, and in the awareness of the advantage of a morally positive identity for our ability to experience our highest human values of love and happiness, and in understanding our human need for a sound self- esteem and sense of dignity.
But also the aim on creation of an intelligent, natural and peaceful society in safety, prosperity and freedom, where the highest human values of love and happiness as much as possible can become realized for ourselves and every other human can be seen as part of that foundation.
And this aim means also an aim to realize a world in harmony with the core of our human evolution, and in respect and harmony with nature, and in harmony with our true human identity and our deepest and true human nature.

Resemblance of universal and religious perspective
This universal foundation of human morality can (up to one’s individual choice) come very close to the foundation of morality of traditional religions.
For, to live out of our morally positive identity and an aim to come in harmony with our true human nature means also in harmony with the true nature of existence.
And the aim to obey God or Allah can also be translated as: the aim to be in harmony with the Origin of existence, or with the very deepest and True Nature of existence . . .
And this may also create a little more understanding and respect between traditional religious people and non-religious or atheist people, and create a little less distance between them.

Sceptics and universal morality
Also for the most sceptics among us who cannot accept the evolutionary explanation of our most basic human virtues, remains that these most basic human virtues are also our most basic social qualities of today, and indispensable for the realization of our very highest and universal human values.
So the evolutionary explanation is basically just a help for understanding in a religion- independent evolutionary perspective.

Primitive individual survival mentality
against social human nature and morality

All universal empirical human values, and all universal moral standards and virtues are of a social nature or of a common nature. And they stand against a primitive individual and egocentric survival-mentality; and so also against an egocentric individual survival- culture and the social-Darwinistic snake-pit society which it creates.

War and misery
The contradiction between a primitive individual survival mentality and our evolutionary developed super social human nature asks for a new understanding, and a social and moral awareness, and a global consensus and agreement on universal human values, moral standards, and virtues.
A global consensus and agreement, because a growing world-population means in terms of a primitive (collective) egocentric survival-mentality a growing danger of wars, civil wars, chaos, and misery on a huge scale . . .
However more communication and more understanding of our common human nature and shared values and virtues means a growing potential to avoid that misery.

Against the human race
Our modern-human and global individual survival-culture basically inhibits the realiza- tion of our very highest human values, and goes against universal moral standards, and against universal and evolutionary established moral virtues. It is against our social human nature, and hence ultimately against the human race . . .
The only plausible solution seems to be to adjust to our social human roots and to move more and more in the direction of a global culture of a natural and universal human morality by means of a basic universal moral education.

Definitions and explanations

Basic intelligence  
In short: knowledge, understanding, and awareness of human nature, and most basic human values, standards, and virtues and vices, and of their relations and implications.

With our being is meant here our most true identity, as experienced in a mental state of egolessness and total integrity, however not necessarily in timelessness.
Many experience it in an experience of true love, ecstasy, orgasm, deep gratitude, true and total laughter, or in a state of total mental relaxation or meditation.
The existence of our being can only be proved by inner observation, by means of our consciousness; and our consciousness cannot exist without our being . . .

With a class society is meant here a divided society of a rich upper-class with access to knowledge and development and a poor lower class underdeveloped and frustrated and living in criminality and misery.
However as explained before with the upper class living in the misery of narcissism or a more or less psychopathic mentality.

Common individual value
In some sense a social value, but basically an individual value.

Consciousness and being  
Consciousness can be observed as a quality of our being; so an adjective, and not a noun in the sense of some phenomenon separate of our being. Our being can be aware or conscious of our feelings, and of our thoughts and imaginations, and mira- culously also of itself . . .
And also can our being be aware or conscious of its consciousness, or of the fading away of its consciousness . . .  Also can be seen, that only through consciousness our being can be aware of an experience of love, happiness, gratitude or orgasm, and eventually of our very deepest human nature . . .
However someone in coma, deep sleep or under anaesthesia can in general be called unconscious, although unawareness of our environment through our senses doesn’t necessarily mean unawareness of our being . . . . . But also, the phenomenon of life itself in coma, deep sleep or anaesthesia doesn’t necessarily mean awareness of being . . . . .

To make one’s ego the only centre in one’s way of thinking, and to make oneself so important, that one doesn’t see any more the interests or needs of other people.
It means an exclusive self-focusedness, and contains egoism, complacency and an exaggerated self-concern. And often it also contains egotism and self-conceit.

Our ability to understand, reproduce and experience the feelings of others.
Empathy comes forth from our perception and understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves, and it creates feelings of connectedness and a spontaneous human respect.
And the understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves is created by means of the mirror-neurons in our nerve-system and brains.
Empathy has to be seen as basically a human potential or talent, to be developed already in early childhood.

Empirical values
Values which can be directly experienced in the reality of our life.

Freedom of euthanasia
The individual freedom of any conscious human being to decide about the termination of one’s own life, in regard of a hopeless terminal suffering, or where the experience of love and happiness and the value of one’s life are definitely ruled out.

Feelings of connectedness
Out of perception, empathy and understanding of sameness a conscious or uncons- cious feeling of sympathy or even friendship; basically a subtle feeling of love.
(Our understanding of sameness is created by our evolutionary inherited mirror- neurons in our brains.)

Happiness “defined” 
In general:
To be in a pleasant mental state of contentment in one’s circumstances.
Or, better, to be in a pleasant and loving state of contentment in one’s circumstances.
More profoundly:
A beyond pleasant and content state of being, in unconcernedness, unburdenedness,  and love, and in a sense of inner freedom.
Or, an inner experience of being and loving in a state of total inner freedom and clarity in our most true and ego-less identity.
And ultimately:
To be in a state of being of total inner freedom and fulfilment with love and ecstasy, and out of this an understanding beyond a rational understanding.
Or, an experience of being in a profound quality of love beyond love, out of our totally true human identity, in a total inner freedom and indescribable quality of ecstasy.

Life itself and our being
With life itself is meant here: life itself, as a general, objective and rational idea.
And from an objective point of view could also be thought, that life itself in us is the same as our being. However from a direct empirical point of view “life itself”  is some- thing general, objective and theoretical, and the word “being” is a direct expression of a realistic inner experience of ourselves . . .
But from a general rational and logical point of view our being cannot exist without our physical life itself. However as explained, from an empirical perspective the rational idea of “life itself” in us cannot be experienced as our being. And moreover, life itself can also be in our physical body without us experiencing our conscious being. (e.g. in deep sleep or coma etc.)
Hence life itself in us cannot be the same as our being, nor can it be the same as our consciousness. And as mentioned, the existence of our being can be proved by our consciousness, and our consciousness cannot exist without our being . . .

Love “defined”
Feelings, or experience of deep connectedness or oneness with any other human being, any animal, nature, or unnamable . . .
Love may happen to us when we are able to be open to the beauty and nature of other people, or to the beauty and mystery of nature in general, or even beautiful things.
However this superficial analytical description of love can say nothing of the deeper and incomprehensible empirical nature of it . . .  (!)

Might makes right
An egocentric claiming of rights over others on basis of one’s strength or power, and justifying harming others by claiming the right to do so, based one’s power or strength.
It is a basic premise in antisocial behaviour and a criminal mentality, and the basis of Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and a basic and structural part of APD, (antisocial personality disorder).
“Might makes right” in general means dominance, suppression and humiliation.
And the principle of might makes right is undermining and subversive to almost all basic and universal human values, and stands against almost all basic and universal moral standards, and opposes almost all basic and universal human virtues . . .

Basically a teaching and/or an understanding of socially right and wrong behaviour, and right and wrong personal qualities, and awareness of our highest moral values, standards and virtues, and the way of living out of a morally positive identity.

Morally positive identity
A human identity based on our highest moral qualities of integrity, truth, human-friendliness, empathy, reliability, loyalty and justice etc., needed to realize our highest human values of peace love and happiness.

Moral standards
Generally agreed and accepted basic principles of behaviour, organization, decisions, or rights, based on the most basic human values and virtues.

Respect literally
From re – spect; so literally: to look once more; to look a little better to another person, or to the society, or to nature, etc.  To look once more, to create an understanding of the other which creates feelings of connectedness, sympathy, or even loving.
So, to take the or that other in account and to make the or that other important.

With respectless and respectlessness is meant here disregard, however with an accent on the absence of human respect.
Disregard seems to contain a weakening by moving away from the word of respect.
It seems to contain some blurring or smoothing over the fact of absence of respect.

Social Darwinism
With social Darwinism is meant here the theory that the life of humans in a society has basically to be an individual struggle for existence, ruled by the survival of the fit- test. Wealth is seen here to be a sign of natural superiority, and its absence a sign of unfitness. And this theory has often been used to justify the laissez-faire capitalism, imperialism, and racism . . .
However social Darwinism in the sense of an individual survival mentality within a hu- man society is basically against our social human nature, as genetically established
in our physical human brains (mirror-neurons and oxytocin etc.).

And social Darwinism supports egocentrism, narcissism, antisocial behaviour and a psychopathic mentality in any human society . . .

Social value
Value for some group of people or for a society as a whole.

Survival conditioning
Programming by movie, computer-game, TV-program etc. or in real life, of egocentrism enemy-thinking, demonizing of enemies, repression of empathy (mirror-neurons), and programming of respectlessness, mercilessness, violence, and cruelty.

In this writing: a statement suggested for assumption as a basic premise or a basic consideration in our way of thinking.
Sometimes this may be a statement which is for many or most people obvious.

Generally acknowledged or acknowledgeable and realistic, and basically independent of any religious belief, culture or (non-universal) philosophy.

Important or desirable things, matters or givennesses, with a utility or positive effect on our life.

Values, psychopathic
With psychopathic values is meant in this writing the values of power, money, and wealth as the only, and very highest human values.

Virtue / moral quality / moral virtue
Moral quality, or moral goodness in the sense of a developed natural human quality of mind and identity, supporting the realization and continuation of our very highest individual and social human values. So, supportive to the well-being and happiness of other people, our society or humanity, as well as of ourselves.  Virtues or moral quali- ties can also be seen as social qualities.

Virtues or values
Although virtues can also be seen as values, basically they are individual qualities of mind, and basically they are just a means to realize or maintain basic values. But if a virtue has more or less become a quality of a society then this can also be seen as a value.

Virtual values
Values, being basically virtues or qualities of mind, are intelligence and justice; they are from a general point of view the most needed human virtues. For, intelligence can be seen as more or less containing all other human virtues, and both are badly needed in egocentric survival-societies.

Win-win-win cooperation
With a win-win-win cooperation is meant here: a win-win cooperation which creates a new win-effect, which not only consists of more prosperity, safety and peace, but also of more trust, connectedness, friendship, and sense of unity and loyalty . . .
For this is however also needed some basic intelligence, and especially in the sense of awareness of our most basic values, and humane idealism.
And the extra win-addition can also be seen in the sense of cooperation between many states or cultures, because it creates more global unity.

Erwin Djali

Your core values are the guiding principles of your life that help you determine your behavior, words, and actions. It’s essential to your personal evolution to take stock of your values on a regular basis, and then make the necessary changes to align your life with these most critical values.

Living in harmony with your values creates the fertile environment for happiness, peace of mind, and success, because you are living authentically without confusion, guilt, or shame. Even small, incremental changes to align your life with your values will create a positive shift in your feelings and attitude.

Look at this list of 400 value words below, and select your top 5-10 for your personal and professional life.

Write them down and evaluate how you might be living outside of your values right now. What do you need to change to support your values? What is the first step you can take today?



















































































































































































































































































































































































































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