Archive for October, 2011

31
Oct
11

Khazanah : Pandawa Lima, Gambaran 5 (Lima) Rukun Islam

PANDAWA LIMA [ Gambaran Rukun Islam yang lima ]

SABTU, 29 OKTOBER 2011 – DENMAS PRIYADI BLOG –

Dalam cerita pewayangan Pandawa Lima adalah lima sosok kesatriya Amarta  putra dari Prabu Puntadewa dan Dewi Prita [Dewi Kunthi].  Mereka adalah Yudistira, Bima, Arjuna, dan sikembar Nakula dan Sadewa.  Dikaitkan dengan ajaran Islam ke lima putra Pandawa ini merupakan Rukun Islam yang lima, yaitu: 1. Syahadatain, 2. Sholat lima waktu, 3. Puasa Ramadhan, 4.  Zakat, 5. Pergi Haji.

1.    Yudistira (Darmakusuma),

Yudistira dikenal juga dengan nama Darmakusuma adalah putra pertama, merupakan pemuka Pandawa yang di atas mahkotanya terdapat  secarik kertas putih yang menjadi agemannya dan merupakan jimat kesaktiannya sehingga tidak bisa dikalahkan oleh siapapun.  Jimat Yudistira ini disebut Klimo Sodo yang berupa tulisan kalimat Syahadatain, “Lailahaillallah Muhammadarrasulullah”. Ini merupakan gambaran jika seseorang telah mengucapkan kalimat Syahadat tersebut harus dengan keyakinan yang mendalam sehingga menimbulkan kekuatan jiwa yang mampu mengalahkan sifat angkara murka.

2.    Bima ( Werkudoro ),

Bima dikenal juga dengan nama Werkudoro. Bima atau Werkudoro bertubuh tinggi besar seperti raksasa, Selalu mengenakan gelang supit urang dengan wajah nampak garang akan tetapi  selalu menunduk seperti orang yang sedang melaksanakan Sholat. Bila sedang melakukan sesuatu tidak bisa diganggu sampai apa yang sedang dilakukannya itu selesai. Hal ini menggambarkan jika sedang melakukan ibadah sholat tidak bisa diganggu gugat.  Bima adalah kesatriya pandawa yang paling berani dan gagah perkasa dengan aji kesaktiannya yang terdapat di lengannya yaitu, Aji Pancanaka yang berarti Lima kekuatan yang selalu dipegangnya dengan kuat. Ini merupakan symbol atau lambang bahwa apabila Sholat lima waktu dilaksanakan dengan baik penuh keyakinan dan ketekunan yang mendalam akan memiliki kekuatan yang besar yang mampu mengalahkan segala tantangan baik secara badaniah maupun rohaniah.

3.    Arjuna (Janaka),

Arjuna mempunyai banyak nama diantaranya adalah Janaka, Permadi.  Arjuna dikenal suka bertapa, berjiwa teguh, dan berwajah tampan. Ini merupakan gambaran orang yang rajin berpuasa(bertapa), akan memiliki jiwa yang kuat dan tenang  dalam menghadapi segala tantangan dan cobaan.

4 dan 5. Nakula dan Sadewa,

Nakula dan Sadewa adalah kesatriya Pandawa yang sangat rajin dan giat bekerja. Selain itu penampilannya perlente, rapih dan berpakaian bagus dan bersifat dermawan. Ini menggambarkan seperti orang yang mengeluarkan Zakat dan pergi Haji.  Mereka orang-orang yang berzakat dan berhaji adalah orang-orang yang mampu dan kaya baik hartanya maupun jiwa batiniahnya.

(dikutip dari posting Multiply)

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31
Oct
11

Khazanah : Sejarah Hidup Muhammad SAW

Teladan Rasulullah

Rabu, 24 Agustus 2011 18:56 WIB

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Umar kemudian pergi ke masjid, dan dengan suara lantang ia berkata kepada kaum Muslimin, “Rasulullah SAW tidak menceraikan isterinya.”

Sehubungan dengan peristiwa ini, turun ayat-ayat suci ini: “Hai Nabi, mengapa kamu mengharamkan apa yang Allah halalkan bagimu; kamu mencari kesenangan hati istri-istrimu? Dan Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang. Sesungguhnya Allah telah mewajibkan kepadamu sekalian membebaskan diri dari sumpahmu dan Allah adalah Pelindungmu dan Dia Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Bijaksana.” (QS At-Tahrim: 1-2)

“Dan ingatlah ketika Nabi membicarakan secara rahasia kepada salah seorang istrinya (Hafsah) suatu peristiwa. Maka tatkala (Hafsah) menceritakan peristiwa itu (kepada Aisyah) dan Allah memberitahukan hal itu (pembicaraan Hafsah dan Aisyah) kepada Muhammad lalu Muhammad memberitahukan sebagian (yang diberitakan Allah kepadanya) dan menyembunyikan sebagian yang lain (kepada Hafsah). Maka tatkala (Muhammad) memberitahukan pembicaraan (antara Hafsah dan Aisyah) lalu (Hafsah) bertanya: “Siapakah yang telah memberitahukan hal ini kepadamu?” Nabi menjawab: “Telah diberitahukan kepadaku oleh Allah yang Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Mengenal.”

“Jika kamu berdua bertaubat kepada Allah, maka sesungguhnya hati kamu berdua telah condong (untuk menerima kebaikan); dan jika kamu berdua bantu-membantu menyusahkan Nabi, maka sesungguhnya Allah adalah Pelindungnya dan (begitu pula) Jibril dan orang-orang mukmin yang baik; dan selain dari itu malaikat-malaikat adalah penolongnya pula.”

“Jika Nabi menceraikan kamu, boleh jadi Tuhannya akan memberi ganti kepadanya dengan istri yang lebih baik daripada kamu, yang patuh, yang beriman, yang taat, yang bertaubat, yang mengerjakan ibadat, yang berpuasa, yang janda dan yang perawan.” (QS At-Tahrim: 3-6)

Dengan demikian peristiwa itu selesai. Istri-istri Nabi kembali sadar, dan beliau pun kembali kepada mereka setelah mereka benar-benar bertaubat, menjadi manusia yang rendah hati beribadah dan beriman. Kehidupan rumah tangganya sekarang kembali tenang, yang memang demikian diperlukan oleh setiap manusia yang sedang melaksanakan suatu beban besar yang ditugaskan kepadanya.

Apabila orang itu orang besar seperti Muhammad SAW, lemah-lembut  seperti beliau,  berlapang dada, tahan menderita, orang berwatak dengan segala sifat-sifat yang ada padanya—yang sudah disepakati dan diakui pula oleh semua penulis sejarah Hidupnya—maka menggambarkan salah satu dari kedua peristiwa itu an sich sebagai sebab ia memisahkan diri dan mengancam hendak menceraikan istri, adalah suatu   hal yang kebalikannya, jauh daripada suatu cara kritik sejarah.

Sebaliknya, kritik yang akan dapat diterima orang dan sejalan pula dengan logika sejarah ialah apabila peristiwa-peristiwa itu mengikuti jejak yang sebenarnya, yang akan membawa kepada kesimpulan-kesimpulan yang sudah pasti tidak bisa lain akan ke sana. Maka dengan demikian ia akan menjadi masalah biasa, masuk akal dan secara ilmiah dapat diterima.

Ada beberapa orientalis yang juga bicara tentang ayat-ayat yang turun pada permulaan surah At-Tahrim seperti di atas. Disebutkan bahwa semua kitab suci di Timur tidak ada yang menyebut-nyebut peristiwa rumah tangga dengan cara semacam itu.

Rasanya tidak perlu kita mengatakan lagi apa yang tersebut dalam kitab-kitab suci itu semua—termasuk Alquran di antaranya tentang masyarakat Luth dengan segala cacat mereka. Bahkan Taurat (Perjanjian Lama) membawa cerita tentang Luth dan dua anaknya yang perempuan ketika mereka memberikan minuman anggur kepada bapaknya sehingga dua malam berturut-turut ia mabuk, dengan maksud supaya dapat masing-masing mereka dapat tidur dengan Luth dan dengan demikian mereka memperoleh keturunan—karena khawatir keluarga Luth kelak akan punah, setelah  Tuhan menurunkan bencana. Oleh sebab itu, maka semua kitab suci membuat kisah-kisah para rasul serta apa yang mereka lakukan dan segala apa yang terjadi, ialah sebagai suri teladan bagi umat manusia.

Banyak sekali kisah-kisah demikian dalam Alquran. Tuhan menyampaikan kisah-kisah yang baik sekali kepada Rasulullah. Sedang Alquran bukan hanya diturunkan kepada Nabi Muhammad, melainkan kepada seluruh umat manusia. Muhammad SAW adalah seorang nabi dan rasul, sebelum dia pun telah banyak rasul-rasul lain yang dibawakan kisahnya dalam Alquran.

Jika Qur’an menyampaikan berita-berita tentang Muhammad SAW dan menyangkut  pula kehidupan pribadinya yang perlu menjadi contoh buat kaum Muslimin dan teladan yang baik pula, serta memberi isyarat tentang arti dalam tindakan dan kebijaksanaannya itu, maka kisah-kisah para nabi  yang terdapat dalam Alquran itu sama sekali tidak berarti keluar daripada apa yang terdapat dalam kitab-kitab  suci  lain.

Apabila kita mengatakan bahwa masalah Muhammad SAW meninggalkan istrinya itu bukan sebab yang berdiri sendiri di samping sebab-sebab lain yang telah menimbulkan cerita itu, juga bukan karena Hafshah bercerita kepada Aisyah tentang apa yang dilakukan Nabi dengan Maria—suatu hal yang memang patut dilakukan oleh setiap laki-laki terhadap istrinya atau siapa saja yang sah menjadi miliknya—orang akan melihat, bahwa tinjauan yang dikemukakan oleh beberapa orientalis itu,  dari segi kritik sejarah sama sekali tidak dapat dibenarkan. Juga tidak pula sejalan dengan apa yang ada dalam kitab-kitab suci sehubungan dengan kisah-kisah dan kehidupan para nabi itu.

Redaktur: cr01
Sumber: Sejarah Hidup Muhammad oleh Muhammad Husain Haekal
31
Oct
11

Perjalanan Wisata Cinta Tanah Air

Cerita Perjalanan

Cerita Perjalanan

31
Oct
11

Politik : Papua Bergolak

PAPUA BERGEJOLAK
Tunjuk Jenderal Darmono Pimpin UP4B, SBY Mau Terapkan Pendekatan Militer?
Senin, 31 Oktober 2011 , 08:57:00 WIB

Laporan: Zulhidayat Siregar

BAMBANG DARMONO/IST

RMOL. Bila memang Presiden SBY membentuk Unit Percepatan Pembangunan Papua dan Papua Barat untuk menyelesaikan persoalan yang saat ini melanda Papua, mestinya lembaga itu dipimpin oleh kalangan teknokrat-sipil, bukan seorang jenderal.

“Kenapa pemimpinnya Jenderal Darmono? Kalau jenderal kan artinya mau perang,” ungkap Ketua Dewan Direktur Sabang Merauke Circle Syahganda Nainggolan saat dihubungi Rakyat Merdeka Online pagi ini menanggapi penunjukan mantan Panglima Kodam Iskandar Muda Aceh, Bambang Darmono, sebagai Ketua UP4B.

Kemarin, Staf Khusus Presiden Bidang Otonomi Daerah Velix Wanggai menegaskan penunjukan Bambang Darmono bukan berarti pemerintah ingin melakukan pendekatan militer dalam menyelesaikan persoalan di kawasan paling timur Indonesia tersebut.

Meski diakui Velix, yang juga putra Papua tersebut, pengalaman Darmono di Aceh bisa diimplementasikan untuk menyelesaikan gejolak di Papua. Hal ini lah yang tidak bisa diterima Syahganda.

“Di Aceh itu kan beda urusan, bukan urusan pembangunan. Dulu kan pendekatannya tanggap darurat. Ini kan memang soal dialog. November 2010 SBY datang ke sana tapi tidak dialog dengan tokoh adat-adat, sebagai sumber inspirasi dan aspirasi masyarakat di Papua. Itu kan membuat kecewa,” tegasnya. [zul]

Cendrawasih Pos, Senin, 31 Oktober 2011 , 17:51:00
Ketua KNPI Pusat Akan Turun ke Papua
JAYAPURA-Terpilihnya Ketua Umum Majelis Pimpinan Pusat Gerakan Pemuda Sehat (MPP GPS), Taufan Eko Nugroho Rotarasiko sebagai Ketua DPP  Dewan Pimpinan  Pusat (DPP) Komite Nasional Pemuda Indonesia pada Kongres pemuda XIII di Jakarta pada Sabtu, (30/10) akhir pekan lalu, mendapat sambutan hangat dari para organisasi kepemudaan di Provinsi Papua.
Diantarannya, DPD AMPI Papua, MPW Provinsi Papua, dan MPD MPS Kota Jayapura, Corps Yudha Putra Pemuda Panca Marga Provinsi Papua, PD Pemuda Pancamarga Provinsi Papua, DPD HPPI Provinsi Papua, Batko HMI Papua, HMI Kabupaten Sorong dan HMI Kabupaten Merauke.
Secara umum, mereka menyampaikan dukungan penuh dan siap mensukseskan program kegiatan kepengurusan DPP KNPI periode 2011-2014. Namun diharapkan, ketua DPP KNPI yang baru mampu membawa perubahan positif dalam membina dan mendidik generasi pemuda Indonesia. Terutama pemuda di Papua yang banyak terlibat dan salah arah jalan dalam gerakan-gerakannya yang pada akhirnya tindakannya itu mengancam stabilitas Negara dan membuat kenyamanan rakyat terganggu.
Wakil Ketua  MPW Gerakan Pemuda Sehat Provinsi Papua, yang juga  selaku Komandan Denma Corps Yudha Putra Pemuda Panca Marga Provinsi Papua, Drs.M.Rusdianto Abu,M.Si, mengatakan, dengan terpilihnya  Taufan Eko Nugroho Rotarasiko sebagai Ketua DPP  Dewan Pimpinan  Pusat (DPP) Komite Nasional Pemuda Indonesia, kedepannya dapat mempersatukan pemuda dan mampu mengarsitek pemuda Indonesia yang profesional, yang unggul dan berkualitas dalam segala aspek kehidupan.
Lebih dari itu menjadikan pemuda Indonesia sebagai pemuda yang tangguh yang menjadi motor penggerak pembangunan di Indonesia dan di daerah khususnya. Dengan kata lain, semangat Sumpah Pemuda yang dicetuskan Budi Utomo harus dijadikan dasar dalam membangun Pemuda Indonesia.
“Kami harapkan ada pemuda pada OKP di Tanah Papua dapat duduk dalam jabatan strategis di DPP KNPI, sebagai representatif (Perwakilan) pemuda di Tanah Papua. Kami akan buat syukuran atas terpilihnya Bung Taufan Eko Nugroho Rotarasiko itu,” ungkapnya dalam keterangan persnya kepada wartawan di D’Green Hotel Tanah Hitam Abepura, Sabtu, (29/10).
Diharapkan pula, DPP KNPI dapat menjadi mitra pemerintah untuk menjadi perekat anak bangsa dalam menyatukan pemuda Indonesia demi membangun bangsa dan Negara Indonesia tercinta ini, menjadi pemuda yang bermoral dan berklak mulia.
Ditempat yang sama, Sekretaris Pemuda Panca Marga Provinsi Papua, Berth Steve Wairara, menandaskan, ketua yang baru harus mampu melihat persoalan pemuda di tanah Papua, yang mana dalam perjalanan Papua dalam kerangka otonomi khusus ini, banyak bermunculan organisasi pemuda, yang kenyataannya kebanyakan terlibat dalam kegiatan politik praktis yang akhirnya menyebabkan munculnya berbagai gesekan-gesekan politik yang akhirnya merugikan para pemuda itu sendiri. Sebagaimana dapat dilihat berbagai persoalan yang terjadi di Papua ini
Sementara itu,  Taufan Eko Nugroho Rotarasiko, menyampaikan, dirinya akan turun ke Tanah Papua untuk melihat langsung persoalan-persoalan pemuda itu seperti apa, apalagi telah ada masukan-masukan dari pemuda/I di Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat.
Dirinya berjanji bahwa akan memberikan masukan-masukan sebagai solusi untuk bagaimana membina generasi muda di tanah Papua, termasuk bagaimana mencari solusi yang tepat untuk turut selain mengatasi persoalan pemuda itu sendiri maupun persoalan masyarakat di tanah Papua.
“Saya akan memberikan solusi terbaik, supaya pemuda dan masyarakat Papua terbina, dan terdidik dengan baik, semakin berprestasi dan semakin mampu membangun daerahnya masing-masing,” katanya.
Ditambahkannya, dirinya akan koordinasi dengan departemen terkait dan pimpinan organisasi kemasyarakatan terkait, untuk bersama-sama memecahkan permasalahan yang ada untuk membangun Papua menuju Papua yang damai, aman, dan tentram.
Sementara itu, memperingati hari Sumpah pemuda 28 Oktober Di Papua, salah satu kegiatan yang dilakukan yakni Dialog dua arah di TVMP. Acara ini menghadirkan nara sumber atau pembicara  Deputi Pemberdayaan Pemuda Drs. Chandra Bhakti, tokoh pemberdayaan Pemuda Papua DR. Tonny Wanggai dan Ketua Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia (KAMMI) daerah Papua Andi M Latif. Dialog dilakukan pada  Minggu (30/10) pukul 21.00 Wit, malam.
Chandra Bhakti menjelaskan, bahwa acara ini merupakan dialog tentang Ulang Tahunnya Sumpah Pemuda yang ke 83. Dengan Topik Pemuda Sebagai Anak Bangsa. Yang mana bahwa dialog ini merupakan program Menpora, untuk dilakukan di 33 Provinsi di Indonesia.
“Selain dialog ini dilakukan, bahwa Menpora juga melakukan kegiatan Seni Budaya, olahraga dan banyak kegiatan lainnya. Yang mana juga kami mengatakan bahwa bulan Oktober ini adalah bulan anak muda di Indonesia,” terangnya kepada Cenderawasih Pos usai melakukan dialog.
Yang mana target yang diharapkan dari kegiatan ini adalah para pemuda bisa memiliki iman dan takwa serta berahklak mulia dan juga mengerti akan sejarah yang dilakukan oleh para pemuda terdahulu, serta  pemuda juga bisa memiliki jiwa ke pemiminan berwira swasta, yang nantinya jiwa kepemimpinan ini akan menjadi pelopor untuk melakukan pembangunan di Indonesia khusunya di Papua,” jelasnya.
Saat disinggung dimata Menpora tentang keberadaan pemuda di Papua ini ? Chandra menyatakan bahwa pemuda di Papua ini tidak jauh dnegan pemuda yang ada di luar Provinsi Papua. “Banyak kita lihat dari Papua ini yang berprestasi baik dari pendidikan dan juga olagraganya,” katanya.
Dan Menpora sendiri, lanjutnya merupakan tempat pelayanan ke pemudaan. Kini Menpora telah melakukan program Indeks pembangunan pemuda, yang mana nantinya bisa melihat Indeks pembangunan manusia. “Yang kini bahwa Indonesia memiliki pringkat 111 dari 183. Nilai ini harus didorong untuk menurun, bayangin aja kita itu dibawah palestina, padahal negaranya selalu bergejolak apa lagi negara lain seperti Singapure yang dibawah 100,” ungkapnya.
Sementara itu tokoh pemberdayaan Pemuda Papua DR. Tonny Wanggai menyampaikan bahwa acara dialog ini merupakan peringatan HUT Sumpah Pemuda di Indonesia. Dengan harapan dari dialog ini pemuda bisa sadar untuk mengingat sejarah-sejarah  beridirnya bangsa Indonesia.
Kemudian pemuda juga bisa memiliki nilai-nilai Pancasila serta pemuda juga bisa memiliki pendidikan yang baik hingga sampai ke pendidikan setinggi mungkin.
Sedangkan Ketua KAMMI daerah Papua Andi M Latif menyampaikan bagaimana generasi Indonesia ke depan. Mengingat dengan jaman yang saat ini para pemuda banyak yang terjerumus ke lingkungan yang buruk, sehingga melupakan sejarah berdirinya Indonesia.
“Jika sampai melupakan sejarah beridirnya Indonesia, pasti tentunya pembangunan di Indonesia pasti akan terhambat atau Indonesia akan tetap negara yang tertinggal, khusunya Papua,” jelasnya.
Maka dari itu tentu Indonesia khususnya Papua harus memiliki pemuda yang memiliki pendidikan yang berkualitas atau SDM. Terlebih mengingat rasa kecintaan terhadap Indonesia, sebab dilihat dari sejarah bahwa selama ini pemudalah yang memiliki peran dalam membangun suatu negara.
( nls/ro)

From: Noval Akt <noval_akt@yahoo.co.id>
Date: Sunday, October 30, 2011, 6:45 PM

Artikel aslinya nih, lebih lengkap dibanding terjemahannya…

JFK, Indonesia,
CIA & Freeport Sulphurby Lisa Pease

What is Past is Prologue.
Inscribed on the National Archives, Washington, D.C.

In Part One of this article (Probe, March-April, 1996) we talked about the early years of Freeport up through the Cuban takeover of their potentially lucrative mine at Moa Bay, as well as their run-in with President Kennedy over the issue of stockpiling. But the biggest
conflict that Freeport Sulphur would face was over the country housing the world’s single largest gold reserve and third largest copper
reserve: Indonesia. To understand the recent (March, 1996) riots at the Freeport plant, we need to go to the roots of this venture to show how things might have been very different had Kennedy lived to implement his plans for Indonesia. Indonesia Backstory
Indonesia had been discovered by the Dutch at the end of the 1500s. During the early 1600s they were dominated by the Dutch East Indies Company, a private concern, for nearly 200 years. In 1798, authority over Indonesia was transferred to the Netherlands, which retained dominion over this fifth largest country in the world until 1941, at which time the Japanese moved in during the course of World War II. By 1945 Japan was defeated in Indonesia and Achmed Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta rose to become President and Vice President of the newly independent Indonesia. But within a month of the Sukarno/Hatta proclamation of independence, British army units began landing in Jakarta to help the Dutch restore colonial rule. Four years of fighting ensued. In 1949, the Dutch officially ceded sovereignty back to Indonesia, with the exception of one key area – that of a hotspot which is now known as Irian Jaya or, depending on who you talk to, West Papua.

Authors Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett, in their book Thy Will Be Done, explain the situation in what was then called Dutch New Guinea:

To Westerners, New Guinea was like a gifted child pulled in opposite directions by covetous guardians. The Dutch clung to the western half as the sole remnant of their once-vast East Indies empire. Their longtime British allies, acting through Australia, controlled the eastern half.
Neighboring Indonesians, on the other hand, thought that all New Guinea was part of their national territory, even if it was still colonized by Europeans.

Dutch New Guinea, or West Irian as the Indonesians called it, was populated by native tribes not far removed from a stone age culture,
such as the Danis and the Amungme. When Indonesia fought to claim independence from the Dutch, West Irian became a symbol for both sides that neither wanted to relinquish. It would take the efforts of President Kennedy to eventually pass control of this area to the newly independent Indonesians, removing the last vestiges of Dutch colonialism.

Indonesia experienced various types of government. When Sukarno first rose to power in 1945, foreigners pointed out that Sukarno’s rule appeared “fascistic,” since he held sole control over so much of the government. Bowing to foreign pressure to appear more democratic, Indonesia instituted a parliamentary system of rule and opened the government to a multiparty system. Sukarno related what followed to his biographer (now cable gossip show host) Cindy Adams:

In a nation previously denied political activities, the results were immediate. Over 40 dissimilar parties sprang up. So terrified were we of being labeled “a Japanese-sponsored Fascistic dictatorship” that single individuals forming splinter organizations were tolerated as
“mouthpieces of democracy.” Political parties grew like weeds with shallow roots and interests top-heavy with petty selfishness and
vote-catching. Internal strife grew. We faced disaster, endless conflicts, hair-raising confusion. Indonesians previously pulling together now pulled apart. They were sectioned into religious and geographical boxes, just what I’d sweated all my life to get them out of.

Sukarno related that nearly every six months, a cabinet fell, and a new government would start up, only to repeat the cycle. On October 17, 1952 things came to a head. Thousands of soldiers from the Indonesian army stormed the gates with signs saying “Dissolve Parliament.” Sukarno faced the troops directly, firmly refusing to dissolve parliament due to military pressure, and the soldiers backed down. The result of this was a factionalized army. There were the “pro-17 October 1952 military” and the “anti-17 October 1952 military.” In 1955, elections were held and parliamentary rule was ended by vote. The Communists, who had done the most for the people suffering the aftereffects of converting from colonial rule to independence, won many victories in 1955 and 1956. In 1955, Sukarno organized the Bandung Conference at which the famous Chinese Communist Chou En Lai was a featured guest. During the 1955
elections, the CIA had given a million dollars to the Masjumi party-an opposition party to both Sukarno’s Nationalist party and the Communist party in Indonesia (called the PKI)-in an attempt to gain political control of the country. But the Masjumi party failed to win the hearts and minds of the people.

In 1957, an assassination attempt was made against Sukarno. Although the actual perpetrators were unknown at the time, both Sukarno and the CIA jumped to use this for propaganda purposes. The CIA was quick to blame the PKI. Sukarno, however, blamed the Dutch, and used this as the excuse to seize all former Dutch holdings, including shipping and flying lines.
Sukarno vowed to drive the Dutch out of West Irian. He had already tried settling the long-standing dispute over that territory through the United Nations, but the vote fell shy of the needed two-thirds majority to set up a commission to force the Dutch to sit down with the Indonesians. The assassination attempt provided a much needed excuse for action.

The victories of the Communists, infighting in the army, and the 1957 nationalization of former Dutch holdings, led to a situation of grave concern to American business interests, notably the oil and rubberindustries. The CIA eagerly pitched in, helping to foment rebellion between the outer, resource rich, islands, and the central government based in Jakarta, Java.
Rockefeller Interests in Indonesia Two prominent American-based oil companies doing business in Indonesia at this time were of the Rockefeller-controlled Standard Oil family:
Stanvac (jointly held by Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony Mobil-Socony being Standard Oil of New York), and Caltex, (jointly held by Standard Oil of California and Texaco.) In Part I of this article we showed how heavily loaded the Freeport Sulphur board was with Rockefeller family and allies. Recall that Augustus C. Long was a board member of Freeport while serving as Chairman of Texaco for many years.
Long becomes more and more interesting as the story develops.
1958: CIA vs. Sukarno “I think its time we held Sukarno’s feet to the fire,” <http://members.aol.com/bblum6/indo1.htm> said Frank Wisner, then Deputy Director of Plans for the CIA, in 1956. By 1958, having failed to buy the government through the election process, the CIA was fomenting a full-fledged operation in Indonesia. Operation Hike, as it was called, involved the arming and training of tens of thousands of Indonesians as well as “mercenaries” to launch attacks in the hope of bringing down Sukarno.

Joseph Burkholder Smith was a former CIA officer involved with the Indonesian operations during this period. In his book, Portrait of a
Cold Warrior, he described how the CIA took it upon themselves to make, not just to enact, policy in this area:

before any direct action against Sukarno’s position could be taken, we would have to have the approval of the Special Group-the small group of top National Security Council officials who approved covert action plans. Premature mention of such an idea might get it shot down …

So we began to feed the State Department and Defense departments intelligence … When they had read enough alarming reports, we planned to spring the suggestion we should support the colonels’ plan to reduce Sukarno’s power. This was a method of operation which became the basis of many of the political action adventures of the 1960s and 1970s. In other words, the statement is false that CIA undertook to intervene in the affairs of countries like Chile only after being ordered to do so … In many instances, we made the action programs up ourselves after we had collected enough intelligence to make them appear required by the circumstance. Our activity in Indonesia in 1957-1958 was one such instance.

When the Ambassador to Indonesia wrote Washington of his explicit disagreements with the CIA’s handling of the situation, Allen Dulles had his brother John Foster appoint a different Ambassador to Indonesia, one more accepting of the CIA’s activities.

In addition to the paramilitary activities, the CIA tried psychological warfare tricks to discredit Sukarno, such as passing rumors that he had been seduced by a Soviet stewardess. To that end, Sheffield Edwards, head of the CIA’s Office of Security, enlisted the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department to help with a porno movie project the CIA was making to use against Sukarno, ostensibly showing Sukarno in the act.
Others involved in these efforts were Robert Maheu, and Bing Crosby and his brother.

The Agency tried to keep its coup participation covert, but one “mercenary” met misfortune early. Shot down and captured during a
bombing run, Allen Lawrence Pope was carrying all kinds of ID on his person to indicate that he was an employee of the CIA. The U.S.
Government, right up to President Eisenhower, tried to deny that the CIA was involved at all, but the Pope revelations made a mockery of this.
Not cowed by the foment, as Arbenz had been in Guatemala, Sukarno marshalled those forces loyal to him and crushed the CIA-aided
rebellion. Prior to the Bay of Pigs, this was the Agency’s single largest failed operation.
1959: Copper Mountain
At this point, Freeport Sulphur entered the Indonesian picture. In July, 1959, Charles Wight, then President of Freeport-and reported to be fomenting anti-Castro plots and flying to Canada and/or Cuba with Clay Shaw (see Part I of this article)-was busy defending his company against House Committee accusations of overcharging the Government for the nickel ore processed at the Government-owned plant in Nicaro, Cuba. The Committee recommended that the Justice Department pursue an investigation. Freeport’s Moa Bay Mining Company had only just opened, and already the future in Cuba looked bleak. In August, 1959, Freeport
Director and top engineer Forbes Wilson met with Jan van Gruisen, managing director of the East Borneo Company, a mining concern. Gruisen had just stumbled upon a dusty report first made in 1936 regarding a mountain called the “Ertsberg” (“Copper Mountain”) in Dutch New Guinea, by Jean Jacques Dozy. Hidden away for years in a Netherlands library during Nazi attacks, the report had only recently resurfaced. Dozy reported a mountain heavy with copper ore. If true, this could justify a new Freeport diversification effort into copper. Wilson cabled Freeport’s New York headquarters asking for permission and money to make a joint exploration effort with the East Borneo Company. The contract was signed February 1, 1960.

With the aid of a native guide, Wilson spent the next several months amidst the near-stone age natives as he forged through near impassable places on his way to the Ertsberg. Wilson wrote a book about this journey, called The Conquest of Copper Mountain. When he finally arrived, he was excited at what he found:

an unusually high degree of mineralization … The Ertsberg turned out to be 40% to 50% iron … and 3% copper … Three percent is quite rich for a deposit of copper … The Ertsberg also contains certain amounts of even more rare silver and gold.

He cabled back a message in prearranged code to the soon-to-be President of Freeport, Bob Hills in New York:

… thirteen acres rock above ground additional 14 acres each 100 meter depth sampling progressive color appears dark access egress formidable all hands well advise Sextant regards. </P><P>

“Thirteen acres” meant 13 million tons of ore above ground. “Color appears dark” meant that the grade of ore was good. “Sextant” was code for the East Borneo Company. The expedition was over in July of 1960.
Freeport’s board was not eager to go ahead with a new and predictably costly venture on the heels of the expropriation of their mining
facilities in Cuba. But the board decided to at least press ahead with the next phase of exploration: a more detailed investigation of the ore samples and commercial potential. Wilson described the results of this effort:

[M]ining consultants confirmed our estimates of 13 million tons of ore above ground and another 14 million below ground for each 100 meters of depth. Other consultants estimated that the cost of a plant to process 5,000 tons of ore a day would be around $60 million and that the cost of producing copper would be 16� a pound after credit for small amounts of gold and silver associated with the copper. At the time, copper was selling in world markets for around 35� a pound. From these data, Freeport’s financial department calculated that the company could recover its investment in three years and then begin earning an attractive profit.

The operation proved technically difficult, involving newly invented helicopters and diamond drills. Complicating the situation was the
outbreak of a near-war between the Dutch-who were still occupying West Irian-and Sukarno’s forces which landed there to reclaim the land as their own. Fighting even broke out near the access road to Freeport’s venture. By mid-1961, Freeport’s engineers strongly felt that the project should be pursued. But by that time, John F. Kennedy had taken over the office of President. And he was pursuing a far different course than the previous administration.
Kennedy and Sukarno “No wonder Sukarno doesn’t like us very much. He has to sit down with people who tried to overthrow him.” – President Kennedy, 1961

Up until Kennedy’s time, the aid predominantly offered to Indonesia from this country came mostly in the form of military support. Kennedy had other ideas. After a positive 1961 meeting with Sukarno in the United States, Kennedy appointed a team of economists to study ways that economic aid could help Indonesia develop in constructive ways. Kennedy understood that Sukarno took aid and arms from the Soviets and the Chinese because he needed the help, not because he was eager to fall under communist rule. American aid would prevent Sukarno from becoming dependent on Communist supplies. And Sukarno had already put down a communist rebellion in 1948. Even the State Department in the United States conceded that Sukarno was more nationalist than Communist.

But the pressing problem during Kennedy’s short term was the issue of West Irian. The Dutch had taken an ever more aggressive stance, and Sukarno was assuming a military posture. America, as allies to both, was caught in the middle. Kennedy asked Ellsworth Bunker to attempt to mediate an agreement between the Dutch and Indonesian governments. “The role of the mediator,” said Kennedy, “is not a happy one; we are prepared to have everybody mad if it makes some progress.”

It did make everybody mad. But it did make progress. Ultimately, the U.S. pressured the Dutch behind the scenes to yield to Indonesia. Bobby Kennedy was enlisted in this effort, visiting both Sukarno in Indonesia and the Dutch at the Hague. Said Roger Hilsman in To Move a Nation:

Sukarno came to recognize in Robert Kennedy the same tough integrity and loyalty that he had seen in his brother, the President, combined with a true understanding of what the new nationalisms were really all about.

So with preliminary overtures having been made to Sukarno and the Hague, Bunker took over the nitty gritty of getting each side to talk to each other. The Dutch, unwilling to concede the last vestige of their once-great empire to their foe, pressed instead for West Irian to become an independent country. But Sukarno knew it was a symbol to his people of final independence from the Dutch. And all knew that the Papuan natives there had no hope of forming any kind of functioning government, having only just recently been pushed from a primitive existence into the modern world. The United Nations voted to cede West Irian fully to Indonesia, with the provision that, by 1969, the people of West Irian would be granted an opportunity to vote whether to remain with or secede from Indonesia. Kennedy seized the moment, issuing National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 179, dated August 16, 1962:

With the peaceful settlement of the West Irian dispute now in prospect, I would like to see us capitalize on the U.S. role in promoting this settlement to move toward a new and better relationship with Indonesia.
I gather that with this issue resolved the Indonesians too would like to move in this direction and will be presenting us with numerous requests.

To seize this opportunity, will all agencies concerned please review their programs for Indonesia and assess what further measures might be useful. I have in mind the possibility of expanded civic action, military aid, and economic stabilization and development programs as well as diplomatic initiatives.

Roger Hilsman elaborated on what Kennedy meant by civic action:”rehabilitating canals, draining swampland to create new rice paddies, building bridges and roads, and so on.” Freeport and West Irian Kennedy’s aid in brokering Indonesian sovereignty over West Irian could only have come as a blow to Freeport Sulphur’s board. Freeport already had a positive relationship with the Dutch, who had authorized the initial exploratory missions there. During the negotiation period,
Freeport approached the U.N., but the U.N. said Freeport would have to discuss their plans with the Indonesian officials. When Freeport went to the Indonesian embassy in Washington, they received no response.

Lamented Forbes Wilson:

Not long after Indonesia obtained control over Western New Guinea in 1963, then-President Sukarno, who had consolidated his executive power, made a series of moves which would have discouraged even the most eager prospective Western investor. He expropriated nearly all foreign investments in Indonesia. He ordered American agencies, including the Agency for International Development, to leave the country. He cultivated close ties with Communist China and with Indonesia’s Communist Party, known as the PKI.

1962 had been a difficult year for Freeport. They were under attack on the stockpiling issue. Freeport was still reeling from having their
lucrative facilities expropriated in Cuba. And now they sat, staring at a potential fortune in Indonesia. But with Kennedy giving tacit support to Sukarno, their hopes looked bleak indeed.
Reversal of Fortunes Kennedy stepped up the aid package to Indonesia, offering $11 million.
In addition, he planned a personal visit there in early 1964. While Kennedy was trying to support Sukarno, other forces were countering their efforts. Public dissent in the Senate brewed over continuing to aid Indonesia while the Communist party there remained strong. Kennedy persisted. He approved this particular aid package on November 19, 1963.
Three days later, Sukarno lost his best ally in the west. Shortly, he would lose the aid package too.

Sukarno was much shaken by the news of Kennedy’s death. Bobby made the trip the President had originally planned to take, in January, 1964.
Cindy Adams asked Sukarno what he thought of Bobby, and got more than she asked for:

Sukarno’s face lit up. “Bob is very warm. He is like his brother. I loved his brother. He understood me. I designed and built a special
guest house on the palace grounds for John F. Kennedy, who promised me he’d come here and be the first American President ever to pay a state visit to this country.” He fell silent. “Now he’ll never come.”

Sukarno was perspiring freely. He repeatedly mopped his brow and chest. “Tell me, why did they kill Kennedy?”

Sukarno noted with irony that the very day Kennedy was assassinated, his Chief of Bodyguards was in Washington to study how to protect a president. Looking to the future, he was not optimistic:

I know Johnson … I met him when I was with President Kennedy in Washington. But I wonder if he is as warm as John. I wonder if he will like Sukarno as John Kennedy, my friend, did.
LBJ and Indonesia
As others have noted, foreign policy changed rapidly after Kennedy’s death. Donald Gibson says in his book Battling Wall Street, “In foreign policy the changes came quickly, and they were dramatic.” Gibson outlines five short term changes and several long term changes that went into effect after Kennedy’s death. One of the short term changes was the instant reversal of the Indonesian aid package Kennedy had already approved. Hilsman makes this point as well:

One of the first pieces of paper to come across President Johnson’s desk was the presidential determination … by which the President had to certify that continuing even economic aid [to Indonesia] was essential to the national interest. Since everyone down the line had known that President Kennedy would have signed the determination routinely, we were all surprised when President Johnson refused.

Someone at Freeport was so pleased with Johnson’s behavior that he supported his presidential run in 1964: Augustus C. “Gus” Long.

Long had been Chairman at Texas Company (Texaco) for many years. In 1964, he and a bunch of other conservative, largely Republican business moguls, joined together to support Johnson over Goldwater. The group, calling themselves the National Independent Committee for Johnson, included such people as Thomas Lamont, Edgar Kaiser of Kaiser Aluminum,
Robert Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Thomas Cabot of Cabot Corporation of Boston, and many other luminaries of the business world.

Long had two toes in the Indonesian fray-one for Freeport, one for Texaco. In 1961, Caltex-jointly owned by Standard Oil of California
(Socal) and Texas Company (Texaco)-was one of the three major oil companies in Indonesia forced to operate under a new contract with Sukarno’s government. Under the new terms, 60% of all profits had to be given to the Indonesian government. So he had two reasons to be concerned by Kennedy’s support of Sukarno’s brand of nationalism, which threatened the interests of both companies in which he had a substantial stake.

In Part I, we mentioned that Long had done “prodigious volunteer work” for Presbyterian Hospital in New York, said by a former employee of their PR firm, the Mullen Company, to be a “hotbed of CIA activity.” Now we add that Long was elected President of Presbyterian Hospital two years running-1961 and 1962. In 1964, Long retired his role as Chairman of Texaco. He would be reinstated as Chairman in 1970. What did he do in the interim?

In March of 1965, Long was elected a director of Chemical Bank-another Rockefeller-controlled company.

In August of 1965, Long was appointed to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, where he would approve and suggest covert activities.

In October of 1965, covert activities sealed Sukarno’s fate.

1965: The Year of Living Dangerously After Kennedy’s death, Sukarno had grown ever more belligerent towards the West. The British were busy forming a new country out of Indonesia’s former trading partners Malaya and Singapore, called “Malaysia.” Since the area included territory from which the CIA had launched some of its 1958 activities, Sukarno was justifiably concerned by what he felt was an ever tightening noose. On January 1, 1965, Sukarno threatened to pull Indonesia out of the United Nations if Malaysia was admitted. It was and he did, making Indonesia the first nation ever to pull out of the U.N.
In response to U.S. pressure on Sukarno to support Malaysia, he cried, “to hell with your aid.” He built up his troops along the borders of Malaysia. Malaysia, fearing invasion, appealed to the U.N. for support.

By February, Sukarno could see the writing on the wall:

JAKARTA, Indonesia, Feb. 23 (UPI)-President Sukarno declared today that Indonesia could no longer afford freedom of the press. He ordered the banning of anti-Communist newspapers. …

“I have secret information that reveals that the C.I.A. was using the Body for the Promotion of Sukarnoism to kill Sukarnoism and Sukarno,” he said. “That’s why I banned it.” (New York Times, 2/24/65)

The country was in disarray. Anti-American demonstrations were frequent. Indonesia quit the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The press reported that Sukarno was moving closer to the Chinese and Soviets. Sukarno threatened to nationalize remaining U.S. properties, having already taken over, for example, one of the biggest American operations in Indonesia, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. And then, in an unexpected move, Singapore seceded from Malaysia, weakening the newly formed state bordering Indonesia.

With American money interests threatened, all the usual carrots of foreign aid shunted, no leverage via the IMF or World Bank, and
Freeport’s Gus Long on the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, it was only a matter of time, and not much, at that.
October 1, 1965: Coup or Counter-Coup?
INDONESIA SAYS PLOT TO DEPOSE SUKARNO IS FOILED BY ARMY CHIEF; POWER
FIGHT BELIEVED CONTINUING

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia. Oct. 1-An attempt to overthrow President Sukarno
was foiled tonight by army units loyal to Gen. Abdul Haris Nasution, the
Indonesian radio announced. …

In Washington, a State Department spokesman said Friday the situation in
Indonesia was “extremely confused.” Robert J. McCloskey told a news
conference the State Department was getting reports from the American
Embassy at Jakarta, but “it is not presently possible to attempt any
evaluation, explanation, or comment.”

Late yesterday, a mysterious group calling itself the 30th of September
Movement seized control of Jakarta.

Colonel Untung, who had announced over the Indonesian radio that he was
the leader of the movement, said the group had seized control of the
Government to prevent a “counterrevolutionary” coup by the Generals’
Council. (New York Times, 10/2-3/65, International Edition)

In a strange, convoluted move, a group of young military leaders killed
a bunch of older, centrist leaders who, they claimed, were going to-with
the help of the CIA-stage a coup against Sukarno. But what happened in
the aftermath of this turned Indonesia into one of the bloodiest
nightmares the world has ever seen. This original counter-coup was
branded a coup attempt instead, and painted as brightly Red as possible.
Then, in the disguise of outrage that Sukarno’s authority had been
imperiled, Nasution joined with General Suharto to overthrow the
“rebels.” What started ostensibly to protect Sukarno’s authority ended
up stripping him of it wholly. The aftermath is too horrible to describe
in a few words. The numbers vary, but the consensus lies in the range of
200,000 to over 500,000 people killed in the wake of this
“counter-coup.” Anyone who had ever had an association with the
Communist PKI was targeted for elimination. Even Time magazine gave one
token accurate description of what was happening:

According to accounts brought out of Indonesia by Western diplomats and
independent travelers, Communists, Red sympathizers and their families
are being massacred by the thousands. Backlands army units are reported
to have executed thousands of Communists after interrogation in remote
rural jails. … Armed with wide-bladed knives called parangs, Moslem
bands crept at night into the homes of Communists, killing entire
families and burying the bodies in shallow graves. … The murder
campaign became so brazen in parts of rural East Java that Moslem bands
placed the heads of victims on poles and paraded them through villages.

The killings have been on such a scale that the disposal of the corpses
has created a serious sanitation problem in East Java and northern
Sumatra, where the humid air bears the reek of decaying flesh. Travelers
from those areas tell of small rivers and streams that have been
literally clogged with bodies; river transportation has at places been
impeded.

Latter day thumbnail histories frequently depict the actions like this:
“An abortive Communist coup in 1965 led to an anti-Communist takeover by
the military, under Gen. Suharto.” (Source: The Concise Columbia
Encyclopedia.) But the truth is far more complex. A persuasive indicator
for this lies in the following item, cited in a remarkable article by
Peter Dale Scott published in the British journalLobster (Fall, 1990).
Scott quotes an author citing a researcher who, having been given access
to files of the foreign ministry in Pakistan, ran across a letter from a
former ambassador who reported a conversation with a Dutch intelligence
officer with NATO, which said, according to the researcher’s notes,

“Indonesia was going to fall into the Western lap like a rotten apple.”
Western intelligence agencies, he said, would organize a “premature
communist coup … [which would be] foredoomed to fail, providing a
legitimate and welcome opportunity to the army to crush the communists
and make Soekarno a prisoner of the army’s goodwill.” The ambassador’s
report was dated December 1964.

Later in this article, Scott quotes from the book The CIA File:

“All I know,” said one former intelligence officer of the Indonesia
events, “is that the Agency rolled in some of its top people and that
things broke big and very favorable, as far as we were concerned.”

Ralph McGehee, a 25-year veteran of the CIA, also implicated the agency
in an article, still partially censored by the CIA, published in The
Nation (April 11, 1981):

To conceal its role in the massacre of those innocent people the C.I.A.,
in 1968, concocted a false account of what happened (later published by
the Agency as a book, Indonesia-1965: The Coup That Backfired). That
book is the only study of Indonesia politics ever released to the public
on the Agency’s own initiative. At the same time that the Agency wrote
the book, it also composed a secret study of what really happened. [one
sentence deleted.] The Agency was extremely proud of its successful [one
word deleted] and recommended it as a model for future operations
[one-half sentence deleted].
Freeport After Sukarno
According to Forbes Wilson, Freeport had all but given up hope of
developing its fabulous find in West Irian. But while the rest of the
world’s press was still trying to unravel the convoluted information as
to who was really in power, Freeport apparently had an inside track. In
the essay mentioned earlier, Scott cites a cable (U.S. delegation to the
U.N.) which stated that Freeport Sulphur had reached a preliminary
“arrangement” with Indonesian officials over the Ertsberg in April of
1965, before there could legitimately have been any hope in sight.

Officially, Freeport had no such plans until after the October 1965
events. But even the official story seemed odd to Wilson. As early as
November, a mere month after the October events, longtime Chairman of
Freeport, Langbourne Williams, called Director Wilson at home, asking if
the time had now come to pursue their project in West Irian. Wilson’s
reaction to this call is interesting:

I was so startled I didn’t know what to say.

How did Williams know, so soon, that a new regime was coming to power?
Sukarno was still President, and would remain so formally until 1967.
Only deep insiders knew from the beginning that Sukarno’s days were
numbered, and his power feeble. Wilson explains that Williams got some
“encouraging private information” from “two executives of Texaco.”
Long’s company had managed to maintain close ties to a high official of
the Sukarno regime, Julius Tahija. It was Tahija who brokered a meeting
between Freeport and Ibnu Sutowo, Minister of Mines and Petroleum.
Fortune magazine had this to say about Sutowo (July 1973):

As president-director of Pertamina [the Government’s state-owned oil
company], Lieutenant General Ibnu Sutowo receives a salary of just $250
a month, but lives on a princely scale. He moves around Jakarta in his
personal Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud. He has built a family compound of
several mansions, which are so large that guests at his daughter’s
wedding party could follow the whole show only on closed-circuit
television.

… The line between Sutowo’s public and private activities will seem
hazy to Western eyes. The Ramayan Restaurant in New York [in Rockefeller
Center-author’s note], for example, was bankrolled by various U.S.
oil-company executives, who put up $500,000 to get into a notoriously
risky sort of business. Presumably its backers were motivated at least
in part by a desire to be on amiable terms with the general.

But beyond these dubious accolades, a hint of something else, as well
was revealed:

Sutowo’s still small oil company played a key part in bankrolling those
crucial operations [during the October 1965 events.]

Given the wealth of evidence that the CIA was deeply involved in this
operation, it seems equally likely that Sutowo was acting as a conduit
for their funds.

After Sukarno’s fall from power, Sutowo constructed a new agreement that
allowed oil companies to keep a substantially larger percent of their
profits. In an article entitled “Oil and Nationalism Mix Beautifully in
Indonesia” (July, 1973), Fortune labeled the post-Sukarno deal
“exceptionally favorable to the oil companies.”

In 1967, when Indonesia’s Foreign Investment Law was passed, Freeport’s
contract was the first to be signed. With Kennedy, Sukarno, and any
viable support for Indonesian nationalism out of the way, Freeport began
operations.

In 1969, the vote mandated by the Kennedy brokered U.N. agreement on the
question of West Irian independence was due. Under heavy intimidation
and the visceral presence of the military, Irian “voted” to remain part
of Indonesia. Freeport was in the clear.
The Bechtel Connection
Gus Long was a frequent dinner partner of Steve Bechtel, Sr., owner with
CIA Director John McCone, of Bechtel-McCone in Los Angeles in the
thirties. McCone and Bechtel, Sr. made a bundle off of World War II,
split, and went their not so separate ways. Writes author Laton
McCartney in Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story,

[I]n 1964 and 1965, CIA director John McCone and U.S. ambassador to
Indonesia Howard Jones briefed Steve Bechtel Sr. on the rapidly
deteriorating situation in Indonesia. Bechtel, Socal, Texaco … had
extensive dealings in that part of the world and were concerned because
Indonesia’s President Sukarno was nationalizing U.S. business interests
there. … In October 1965, in what a number of CIA alumni have since
charged was an Agency-backed coup, Sukarno was ousted and replaced by
President Suharto, who proved far more receptive to U.S. business
interests than his predecessor.

Bechtel was no stranger to the CIA. Bechtel Sr. had been a charter
member of the CIA conduit Asia Foundation from its inception as Allen
Dulles’ brainchild. Former CIA Director Richard Helms himself joined
Bechtel, as an “international consultant” in 1978. Said a former
executive, Bechtel was:

loaded with the CIA … The agency didn’t have to ask them to place its
agents … Bechtel was delighted to take them on and give them whatever
assistance they needed.

Bechtel Sr.’s “oldest and closest friend in the oil industry,” Gus Long,
had a problem. Freeport’s project was far more difficult than they had
foreseen, and they needed outside help. The mountainous path to the
“copper mountain” made extraction nearly impossible. Freeport hired
Bechtel to help them construct the appropriate infrastructure to turn
their dreams into reality.

Bechtel came with extras. Freeport needed additional financing for their
costly Indonesian project. Bechtel Sr. had gotten himself appointed to
the advisory committee of the Export-Import (Exim) bank after a long
period of cozying up to Exim bank president Henry Kearns. Freeport was
not happy with the lack of progress and costs of Bechtel’s operation.
Forbes Wilson threatened to drop them from the project. Bechtel Sr.
jumped in, saying he would make the project Bechtel’s top priority. He
also guaranteed them $20 million in loans from the Exim bank. When the
Exim bank’s engineer didn’t think that Freeport’s project seemed
commercially viable and wouldn’t approve their loan, Bechtel Sr. called
Kearns, and the loan went through over the objections of the bank’s
engineer. Three years later, Kearns would resign from the bank when it
revealed the bank had made generous loans to several projects in which
Kearns was personally invested. Although Senator Proxmire called it “the
worst conflict of interest” he had ever seen in seventeen years in the
Senate, the Justice Department declined to prosecute. Said Proxmire:

It will appear to millions of American citizens that there is a double
standard in the law, one for the ordinary citizen and quite another for
those who hold high positions in government and make thousands of
dollars in personal profit as a result of official actions.

Bechtel denies allegations from former employees that it spread over $3
million in cash around Indonesia in the early ’70s.
Unhappily Ever After
The tragedy of the Kennedy assassination lies in the legacy left in the
wake of his absence. Without his support, Indonesia’s baby steps toward
a real, economic independence were shattered. Sukarno, hardly a saint
and with plenty of problems, nonetheless was trying to assure that
business deals with foreigners left some benefit for the Indonesians.
Suharto, in dire contrast, allowed foreigners to rape and pillage
Indonesia for private gain, at the price of lives and the precious,
irreplaceable resources of the Indonesians. Cindy Adams wrote a book
about her experiences with Sukarno, called My Friend the Dictator. If
Sukarno was a dictator, what term exists for Suharto?

Freeport’s Grasberg mine in Indonesia is one of the largest copper and
gold reserves in the world. But the American based company owns 82% of
the venture, while the Indonesian government and a privately held
concern in Indonesia split the remaining percent.

How much influence does Freeport carry in Indonesia? Can they really say
they have Indonesia’s best interests at heart?
Kissinger and East Timor
In 1975, Freeport’s mine was well into production and highly profitable.
Future Freeport Director and lobbyist Henry Kissinger and President and
ex-Warren Commission member Gerald Ford flew out of Jakarta having given
the Indonesian Government under Suharto what State Department officials
later described as “the big wink.” Suharto used the Indonesian military
to take over the Portuguese territory of East Timor, followed by a mass
slaughter that rivaled the 1965 bloodbath.

Says a former CIA operations officer who was stationed there at the
time, C. Philip Liechty:

Suharto was given the green light [by the U.S.] to do what he did. There
was discussion in the embassy and in traffic with the State Department
about the problems that would be created for us if the public and
Congress became aware of the level and type of military assistance that
was going to Indonesia at that time. … Without continued heavy U.S.
logistical military support the Indonesians might not have been able to
pull if off.

In 1980, Freeport merged with McMoRan-an oil exploration and development
company headed by James “Jim Bob” Moffett. The two become one, and
Moffett (the “Mo” in McMoRan) eventually became President of Freeport
McMoRan.
Friends in High Places
In 1995, Freeport McMoRan managed to spin off it’s Freeport McMoRan
Copper & Gold Inc. subsidiary into a separate entity. The Overseas
Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) wrote Freeport McMoRan Copper and
Gold that they planned to cancel their investment insurance based on
their poor environmental record at their Irian project, stating Freeport
has “posed an unreasonable or major environmental, health, or safety
hazard in Irian Jaya.”

Freeport didn’t sit still over this cancellation. Kissinger executed a
major lobbying effort (for which he is paid $400,000 a year), meeting
with officials at the State Department and working the halls of Capitol
Hill. Sources close to the matter, according to Robert Bryce in a recent
issue of the Texas Observer, say Freeport hired former CIA director
James Woolsey in the fight against OPIC.

Freeport, now headquartered in New Orleans, manages to keep friends in
high places. In 1993, the head of the pro-Suharto congressional lobby
was the Senator from Louisiana, Bennett Johnson. Representative Robert
Livingston, of Louisiana, invested in Freeport Copper and Gold while the
House debated and voted on H.R. 322-the Mineral Exploration and
Development Act. And when Jeffery Shafer, one of the directors of OPIC,
recently was nominated for an appointment to Undersecretary of National
Affairs, it was another Louisiana pol, this time Senator John Breaux,
who voted to block the appointment until Shafer provided an explanation
of OPIC’s cancellation of Freeport’s insurance. Jim Bob Moffett, head of
Freeport McMoRan, is listed in Mother Jones’ online “MoJo Wire Coin-Op
Congress” survey of the top 400 people who gave the most money in
campaign contributions.

Freeport’s actions abroad are not the only one’s worth tracking. In
Louisiana itself, Freeport and three other companies (two of which
Freeport later acquired) petitioned for a special exemption to the Clean
Water Act in order to legally dump 25 billion pounds of toxic waste into
the Mississippi river. Citizens protested, and Freeport’s petition was
denied. Freeport then lobbied for the weakening of Clean Water Act
restrictions.

The citizens of Austin, Texas, have fought to block a Freeport plan for
a real estate development that will foul Barton Springs, a popular
outdoor water park there.

According to a recent article in The Nation (July 31/August 7, 1995),
Freeport is part of the National Wetlands Coalition, a group which wrote
much of the language of a bill designed to eliminate E.P.A. oversight of
wetlands areas, freeing them for exploitation. The same coalition has
also lobbied to weaken the Endangered Species Act. The Nation revealed
that Freeport’s political action committee since 1983 has paid members
of congress over $730,000.
Scandal at UT
Freeport’s record caused an uproar at the University of Texas at Austin
recently. The university’s geology department, which has done research
under contract for Freeport, was recently given $2 million dollars by
Jim Bob Moffett for a new building. The school’s Chancellor, William
Cunningham, wanted to name the building after his friend and co-worker
(Cunningham is also a Freeport Director) Moffett. Many on campus
protested this development. Anthropology professor Stephen Feld resigned
his position with the university over this issue, saying UT was “no
longer a morally acceptable place of employment.” The protests about
Cunningham’s conflict of interest-serving UT and Freeport-led to
Cunningham’s resignation last December. He resigned a day after Freeport
threatened to sue three professors at the University who had been
loudest in protest.
Poised on the Brink
While moral victories are lauded in Texas, the real terror continues at
Freeport’s plant in Indonesia.

In March of 1996, just as our last issue went to press, riots broke out
at the Freeport plant in Irian Jaya (the current name for West Irian).
Thousands were marching in the streets around the Freeport plant, where
the military had as recently as December held and tortured in Freeport
mining containers the people who lived and protested in that region. The
protests are deeply rooted in the desire for the independence of the
Papuans, the Amungme, and the many native inhabitants of Irian Jaya who
were never Dutch, and never really Indonesian.

As we go to print, Indonesian sources report that the military has taken
over the numerous Freeport Security stations around the mine. “Military
Exercises” are intimidating the people who in March rioted at Freeport,
causing the plant to lose two days of work and millions of dollars.
Although no curfew has been called, people report a fear of being out at
night.

The native Amungme tribes, the Papuans, and others are still hoping to
retain independence from what they see as only a new form of
colonialism: subservience to Freeport’s interests. According to aNew
York Times article (4/4/96), Freeport is the largest single investor in
Indonesia.

With Kennedy’s support, Indonesia had a chance for real economic
independence. The peoples of Irian were promised a real vote for
self-government. But when Kennedy was killed, a military dictatorship
was installed and paid off so that the interests of businesses like
Freeport have been given higher priority than any demands of the natives
whose resources are still being pillaged.

Sometimes, what we don’t understand about today’s news is what we don’t
know about the Kennedy assassination.
Baca juga:

SBY Jangan Hanya Sibuk Bentuk Lembaga dan Unit
PKS Menduga Freeport Sedang Menaikkan Posisi Tawar Jelang Renegosiasi Kontrak Karya
PKS Minta KPK Selidiki Kerugian Negara dalam Otonomi Khusus Papua
Pecah Belah Masyarakat, Freeport Harus Diusir dari Tanah Air
KPK Harus Usut Bantuan Freeport untuk Polri
30
Oct
11

PusKesMas : Anggur – Antioksidan Antikanker Alami

Kamis, 27/10/2011 14:27 WIB

Anggur

dr Dito Anurogo – detikHealth

Anggur : Antioksidan Antikanker Alami
img
(Foto: thinkstock)

Jakarta, Budidaya anggur sudah dikenal di Timur Tengah sejak tahun 4000 SM. Baru pada tahun 2500 SM, warga Mesir mengembangkan teknologi pengolahan anggur. Kini anggur telah menyebar di seluruh penjuru dunia dan merupakan komoditas yang bernilai ekonomis. Sekitar 75.866 kilometer persegi area di dunia ditanami anggur.

Menurut Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2009), sepuluh negara penghasil anggur terbesar di dunia adalah: Italia, RRC, USA, Prancis, Spanyol, Turki, Iran, Argentina, Chile dan India.

Adapun pusat anggur Indonesia berada di Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Situbondo, (Jawa Timur), Bali, dan Kupang (NTT).

Di Indonesia, anggur dikenal mulai tahun 1682. Lalu di tahun 1828 dimulai budidaya anggur di Banyuwangi dan Besuki. Tahun 1899 mulai dikenal anggur Probolinggo biru dan putih, yang kemudian di tahun 2002 berkembang menjadi anggur varietas Probolinggo Super dan Prabu Bestari.

Anggur merah varietas Prabu Bestari dapat ditanam hingga ketinggian 300 mdpl dan menghasilkan 10-30 Kg buah/pohon. Kelebihan lainnya mengandung resveratrol (1,5-3 mg/liter), gula (20 brix), asam (1,9%), vitamin C (23,23 mg/100 g), kadar juice (47,77%).

Anggur (Vitis vinifera) dapat langsung dimakan mentah atau dibuat cuka, suplemen/ekstrak, jelly, jus, kismis, minyak, selai, wine (semacam minuman fermentasi hasil perasan anggur), juga dipakai sebagai bahan baku di confectionery (perusahaan/toko pembuat gula-gula).

Kandungan

Menurut USDA nutrient database, setiap 100 gram (3,5 oz) anggur hijau atau anggur ungu mengandung karbohidrat (18,1 gram), gula (15,48 gram), serat makanan (0,9 gram), lemak (0,16 gram), protein (0,72 gram); vitamin B1 (0,069 mg), B2 (0,07 mg), B3 (0,188 mg), B5 (0,05 mg), B6 (0,086 mg), B9 (2 μg), C (10,8 mg), E (0,19 mg), K (22 μg); fosfor (20 mg), kalium (191 mg), kalsium (10 mg), magnesium (7 mg), mangan (0,071 mg), natrium (3,02 mg), seng (0,07 mg), zat besi (0,36 mg), turunan stilbene, trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene).

Biji anggur mengandung flavonoid (4-5%), termasuk kaempferol-3-O-glucosides, quercetin-3-Oglucosides, quercetin, dan myricetin. Flavonoid merupakan senyawa fitokimia pemberi warna ungu pada anggur.

Anggur juga kaya polifenol. Sekitar 60–70% polifenol anggur ditemukan di bijinya. Polifenol biji anggur merupakan derivatives (turunan) flavan-3-ol. Komponen utamanya adalah (+)-catechins, (−)-epicatechin,(−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, procyanidins dimers (B1-B5), procyanidin C1, dan procyanidin B5-3′-gallate. Termasuk juga procyanidins atau proanthocyanidins yang sebagian besar heksamer.

Anggur juga kaya akan anthocyanin, 3-glucosides, 3-acetylglucosides, 3-coumaroylglucosides, 3-caffeoylglucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-acetyl-5-diglucosides, 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucosides, dan 3-caffeoyl-5-diglucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, dan malvidin.

Khasiat

Anggur memiliki efek antidiabetes. GSPE (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract) dilaporkan efektif mengobati diabetik nefropati. GPSE (250 mg/kg berat badan/hari) juga memperbaiki kerusakan jantung yang berhubungan dengan glycation pada hewan coba.

Selain itu, ekstrak biji anggur juga memiliki efek antihiperglikemik sehingga bermanfaat mencegah diabetes melitus tipe 2. Percobaan yang dilakukan N.Şendoğdu,dkk (2006) membuktikan bahwa ekstrak ethanol daun anggur pada dosis 250 mg/kg memiliki aktivitas antidiabetes dan antioksidan yang tinggi.

Secara umum, dosis optimum ekstrak biji anggur yang direkomendasikan adalah 150-200 mg/hari, 2-3x minum, atau sesuai saran dokter/ahli herbal.
Ekstrak biji anggur memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dan penangkal radikal bebas. Procyanidin menghambat aktivitas xanthine oxidase; enzim pemicu oxy-radical cascade. Selain itu, procyanidin B4, catechin, dan asam galat dilaporkan sebagai agen pencegah kerusakan DNA oksidatif di tingkat seluler.

Flavonoid pada anggur berfungsi sebagai antioksidan ampuh yang bekerja sebagai pencegah kanker, dapat menghambat oksidasi LDL pada dinding pembuluh koroner, memiliki efek antimikroba, memperbaiki fungsi endotel, menghambat aterosklerosis (timbunan lemak di pembuluh darah).

Quercetin merupakan fitokimia yang termasuk flavonoid, memiliki aktivitas antioksidan, menghambat protein kinase dan DNA topoisomerases, mengatur ekspresi gen, juga memodulasi ekspresi gen yang berhubungan dengan oxidative stress dan di sistem pertahanan antioksidan.

Quercetin mampu mengubah ekspresi regulator siklus sel dan protein apoptosis sehingga efektif mencegah kanker prostat, menghambat mutasi protein p53 dan fase G2-M sehingga efektif mencegah kanker payudara, menghambat diferensiasi sel sehingga baik mencegah keganasan kolorektal (usus besar dan anus), juga berperan di fase G2/M sehingga berpotensi mengobati leukemia. Masih diperlukan riset lanjutan tentang temuan ini.

Polifenol juga merupakan antioksidan. Pada buah anggur dikenal sebagai resveratrol, berfungsi menghambat enzim yang merangsang pertumbuhan sel kanker dan menekan sistem kekebalan tubuh.

Sebenarnya resveratrol telah dikenal selama berabad-abad di dunia kedokteran Asian sebagai Ko-jo-kon, dalam bentuk tepung/bubuk akar Polygonum cuspidatum, sebagai obat antiradang. Uniknya, resveratrol pada kulit anggur berfungsi sebagai antioksidan yang kuat, berefek protektif terhadap kejadian ischemia reperfusion (kekurangan suplai darah), terutama di otot skeletal (rangka) tikus.

Resveratrol dapat menekan aktivasi NF-kB dan men-downregulate berbagai produk gen pemicu radang, seperti: COX-2, 5-LOX, IL-1b, dan IL-6, dimana semuanya berperan penting di dalam terjadinya radang sendi (artritis). Peran ini menunjukkan pencegahan sekaligus terapi artritis.

Resveratrol juga memiliki efek antiproliferasi sehingga dapat mencegah limfoma histiositik dan kanker kolon (usus besar), mengubah ekspresi gen pada aksis androgen dan pengaturan siklus sel sehingga efektif mencegah kanker prostat.

Adapun komponen pada anggur yang berefek antimikroba, seperti: asam galat, asam hydroxycinnamic, flavanol, flavonol, trans-resveratrol, dan tannin.

Senyawa lainnya juga multikhasiat. Saponin (15 mg/hari) dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah, menghambat dan mencegah penyerapan kolesterol di dalam darah. Asam ellagic membantu memperlambat berkembangnya tumor.

Magnesium melancarkan buang air besar. Mangan membantu menstabilkan gula dalam darah, berperan dalam metabolisme lemak, pembentukan jaringan ikat dan tulang. Proanthocyanidine dapat mencegah stroke, serangan jantung, dan melawan proses penuaan.

Pilihlah buah anggur yang masih menyatu dengan tangkainya, ukurannya sama dan seragam, utuh, permukaannya licin, tangkai belum mengering. Agar awet dan tahan lama, sebaiknya anggur disimpan di dalam kulkas. Cucilah dengan sabun khusus buah sebelum dimakan. Makanlah beserta kulitnya sebab kaya akan flavonoid.

Untuk menjaga stamina dan kesehatan, serta mengeluarkan racun di dalam tubuh, minumlah jus anggur atau konsumsilah buah anggur segar setiap hari selama seminggu berturut-turut. Hemm… Ternyata, selain lezat dan sehat, anggur juga multikhasiat. Mau mencoba?

dr. Dito Anurogo
Dokter peneliti hematopsikiatri dan medicopomology, berkarya di RS Keluarga Sehat JL. P. Sudirman 9 Margorejo Pati, Jawa Tengah. Penulis buku ‘Cara Jitu Mengatasi Impotensi’, saat ini sedang melakukan riset tentang Biomarker Stroke bersama ilmuwan di University Wisconsin, USA.

Peneliti hematopsikiatri (ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan golongan darah dengan kepribadian, gaya hidup dan kecenderungan pola penyakit, pencegahan serta solusinya). Peneliti Medicopomology (buah berkhasiat obat).

(ir/ir)

Aneka Herbal

Asep Candra | Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011 | 19:46 WIB
Aneka Herbal Penurun Gula Darah

shutterstock

Pare

KOMPAS.com – Sejumlah tanaman obat memiliki efek seperti insulin dalam tubuh manusia. Tanaman tersebut menurunkan gula darah yang berlebihan pada penyandang diabetes. Dipadu pola makan dan olahraga, herbal dikonsumsi sesudah makan untuk mengendalikan kadar gala darah.

Jumlah penyandang diabetes melitus belakangan ini di Tanah Air terus meningkat. “Salah satu sebabnya adalah konsumsi terlalu banyak karbohidrat. Berapa banyak pun beras diproduksi di Indonesia, pasti habis. Seharusnya kita mengurangi asupan karbohidrat,” ujar Prof. Dr. Sumali Wiryowidagdo, Apt, Kepala Pusat Studi Obat Bahan Alami, Departermen Farmasi Fakultas MIPA Universitas Indonesia.

Terlalu banyak karbohidrat akan menyebabkan produksi gula berlebihan di dalam darah. Gula darah yang berlebihan itu menyebabkan terjadinya penyakit diabetes. Kabar buruknya, bila sudah terkena, diabetes hanya bisa dikendalikan dengan pengendalian gula darah.

“Pengendalian gula darah itu tidak bisa dilakukan dengan pengaturan pola makan semata. Perlu olahraga,” kata Prof. Sumali.

Tanaman obat pun bisa dikonsumsi untuk membantu mengendalikan gula darah. “Obat herbal bekerja seperti insulin. Tanaman herbal ini bisa digunakan dalam jangka panjang tanpa efek samping berarti,” imbuhnya.

Diungkapkan Dr. Prapti Utami, dokter yang mendalami tanaman obat, tanaman obat berfungsi konstruktif, yaitu membangun kembali jaringan yang rusak serta menyembuhkan komplikasi. Obat herbal bekerja menurunkan gula darah dengan mekanisme menghambat penyerapan gula berkat kadar seratnya yang tinggi.

Tanaman seperti pare bekerja memperbaiki sel beta pankreas. “Ada juga yang merangsang sel beta pankreas gula darah,” ujar Dr Prapti.

Untuk diabetesi yang harus mengongurns obat dari dokter agar gula darahnya terkendali, perlu konsultasi dengan dokter terlebih dahulu sebelum mengonsumsi tanaman obat. “Perlu jarak waktu antara minum obat clan minum tanaman obat,” kata Prof. Sumali. Berikut adalah beberapa herbal penurun gula darah :

1. Mahkota Dewa

Efek farmakologi: antiradang, obat disentri, sakit kulit, dan eksim.

Cara penggunaan : lima hingga tujuh iris buah mahkota dewa diseduh dengan satu gelas air panas (200 cc). Tutup dan biarkan sebentar agar melarut dulu. Setelah itu minum secukupnya.

2. Brotowali

Efek farmakologi : analgesik (menghilangkan rasa sakit), anti piretik  (menurunkan panas)

Cara penggunaan :  siapkan 6 cm batang brotowali, cuci bersih, lalu potong-potong. Tambahkan sepertiga genggam daun sambiloto dlan sepertiga daun kumis kucing. Rebus dengan tiga gelas sampai menjadi dua gelas. Diminum setelah makan.

3. Mengkudu

Efek farmakologi : memperbaiki sel beta pankreas dan reseptor insulin yang tidak berfungsi dengan baik.

Cara penggunaan : dua buah mengkudu masak diparut, tambahkan sedikit air kapur. Aduk sampai merata. Peras dengan sepotong kain lalu diminum.

4. Lidah buaya

Efek farmakologi : antiradang, pencahar

Cara penggunaan : 1 lembar lidah buaya dicuci bersih, buang durinya, kemudian dipotong-potong, Rebus lidah buaya dengan tiga gelas air sampai menjadi satu setengah gelas. Minum 3 x1,5 gelas setiap habis makan.

5. Pare

Efek farmakologi : antiradang, sifatnya dingin. Charantin dan polypeptide-P di dalam pare merangsang sel beta pankreas mengeluarkan insulin.

Cara penggunaan : 200 gram buah pare segar dipotong-potong, lalu dijus atau direbus. Kemudian airnya diminum.

6. Teh Hijau

Efek farmakologi : polifenol di dalam teh meningkatkan sensitivitas sel terhadap insulin. Efek teh hijau terhadap insulin ini pernah diteliti oleh Hiroshi Tsuneki dkk dan diterbitkan dalam jumal BMC Pharmacology edisi 2004.

Cara penggunaan : satu sendok tek daun teh hijau diseduh dengan air panas. Minum setelah makan.

(Dian Savitri)

30
Oct
11

Lingkungan : Pemulihan Hutan di Indonesia Jadi Keharusan

Pemulihan Hutan

Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011 14:32 WIB |

Pemulihan Hutan di Indonesia Jadi Keharusan

Tanggamus, Lampung (ANTARA News) – Pemulihan hutan di Indonesia sudah menjadi keharusan sehingga perlu langkah langkah yang semakin baik dengan adanya kerja sama antara masyarakat dan pemerintah, kata Vokal Point Major Groups Initiative of Indigenous People on United Nation Forum on Forest (UNFF) PBB, Hubertus Samangun.

“Kerusakan hutan harus terus diperbaiki sehingga keutuhannya bisa menjadi sumber kemakmuran rakyat dapat terpenuhi,” ujarnya disela-sela peringatan tahun internasional kehutanan 2011 di Teluk Kiluan, Tanggamus, Sabtu.

Menurut dia, kerusakan hutan yang semakin tinggi harus disikapi dengan cepat sehingga tingkat kerusakannya menjadi berkurang.

Ia menyebutkan, Teluk Kiluan berdasarkan masyarakat setempat pada 1977 masih dipenuhi dengan hutan, namun saat ini sudah semakin berkurang.

“Dalam jangka 34 tahun dari sekarang cukup lama, sehingga perlu adanya upaya atau langkah nyata guna mengurangi kerusakan hutan di negeri ini,” ujarnya mengharapkan.

Salah satu upayanya, ia melanjutkan, dengan menggalakkan penanaman pohon keras serta pemberian pemahanan kepada masyarakat khususnya anak dan remaja untuk selalu menjaga serta melestarikan hutan.

“Saya sangat apresiasi kegiatan peringatan tahun internasional kehutanan 2011 di Kabupaten Tanggamus, Provinsi Lampung karena sudah melibatkan pelajar yang ada di provinsi ini,” katanya.

Adanya partisipasi generasi muda, ia mengemukakan, merupakan salah satu peluang besar bagi keberhasilan pemulihan hutan.

Selain itu, pemulihan hutan bakau (mangrove) juga harus turut diperhatikan sehingga kelestarian alam khususnya di sekitar pesisir dapat terawat secara baik.

“Rusaknya kawasan hutan mangrove yang merupakan green belt atau sabuk hijau pantai akan mempengaruhi kehidupan masyarakat di daerah tersebut, baik dari segi ekonomi dan keamanan,” kata Hubertus.

Ia menjelaskan, keberadaan hutan harus dilihat dari sisi ekologinya maka dengan sendirinya nilai secara ekonomi akan mengikuti sehingga kesejahteraan masyarakat di sekitar hutan dapat terpenuhi.

Ketua panitia peringatan tahun kehutanan internasional 2011, Rusli Soheh, mengatakan bahwa kegiatan ini dilaksanakan guna memberikan pemahaman terhadap generasi muda baik tingkat SD hingga SMA.

“Pelajar ini tidak hanya berasal dari Kabupaten Tanggamus melainkan ada juga dari daerah lainnya seperti Bandarlampung serta beberapa orang mahasiswa dari Universitas Trisakti Jakarta,” kata dia yang juga wakil ketua DPRD Tanggamus.

Ia berharap dengan adanya kegiatan itu dapat memberikan warna baru bagi para generasi muda untuk turut serta dalam menjaga kelestarian hutan di daerahnya.

Dalam kegiatan tersebut dilaksanakan penanaman sebanyak 140 bibit mangrove guna melestarikan hutan bakau di daerah itu.
(Uu.ANT-050)

30
Oct
11

Hikmah : Mencintai Rasulullah

Mencintai Rasulullah

Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011 16:58 WIB

Oleh Muhammad Itsbatun Najih

Seorang hamba sahaya bernama Tsauban sangat ingin berjumpa dengan Rasulullah. Sebab, ia sangat mencintai dan mengagumi akhlak dan kepribadian Nabi akhir zaman tersebut. Namun, tempat tinggalnya sangat jauh, sehingga ia sulit berjumpa dengan Rasul SAW.

Pada suatu hari, Tsauban dapat bertemu dengan Rasulullah. Kesempatan itu digunakannya untuk mendengarkan segala nasihat dan tausiah dari Rasul SAW. Mengetahui Tsauban, Rasulullah tampak heran, sebab warna kulitnya tidak seperti warna kulit orang yang sehat, tubuhnya kurus, dan wajahnya menandakan kesedihan yang teramat mendalam. Rasul pun bertanya, “Apa yang menyebabkan kamu seperti ini?”

“Wahai Rasulullah, yang menimpa diriku ini bukanlah penyakit, melainkan ini semua karena rasa rinduku padamu yang belum terobati, karena jarang bertemu denganmu. Dan, aku terus-menerus sangat gelisah sampai akhirnya aku dapat berjumpa denganmu hari ini,” ujarnya.

“Ketika ingat akhirat, aku khawatir tidak dapat melihatmu lagi di sana. Karena, saya sadar bahwa engkau pasti akan dimasukkan ke dalam surga yang khusus diperuntukkan bagi para nabi. Kalaupun toh saya masuk surga, saya pasti tidak akan melihatmu lagi, karena saya berada dalam surga yang berbeda dengan surgamu. Apalagi jika saya nantinya masuk neraka, maka pastilah saya tidak akan dapat melihatmu lagi selama-lamanya,” tukas Tsauban. Mendengar curahan hati si budak Tsauban tersebut, Rasulullah pun menjawab, “Insya Allah engkau (berkumpul) bersamaku di surga.”

Kisah di atas menyiratkan akan ganjaran bagi orang yang memiliki kekaguman dan kecintaan akan sosok Nabi Muhammad SAW. Bahkan, kerinduannya untuk bertemu dengan sang pujaan, mengalahkan segalanya hingga kesehatannya menurun drastis.

Bentuk kecintaan pada Rasulullah, bukan diukur melalui berapa banyak pujaan atau pujian untuk Rasulullah SAW, melainkan bagaimana sikap dan perilakunya untuk melaksanakan segala apa yang biasa dilakukan oleh panutannya itu (menjalankan sunah). Artinya, kecintaan itu datangnya dari hati dan diamalkan dengan perbuatan, bukan dengan sekadar kata-kata.

Di saat banyak orang menyebarkan fitnah yang dialamatkan pada Rasul SAW, maka salah satu bentuk kecintaan seorang Muslim yang bisa diwujudkan adalah dengan kembali menelaah lebih dalam sirah kehidupan beliau melalui berbagai literatur tentang pribadi beliau. Sebab, pengetahuan yang minim tentang Rasulullah pada sebagian umat Islam, akan menjadi celah bagi sejumlah pihak yang tidak bertanggung jawab untuk melemahkan keyakinan umat Islam lewat propaganda dan pemutarbalikkan fakta. Karena itu, dalam membaca sirah nabawiyah pun, harus dipahami makna dan esensi dari akhlak Rasul SAW.

Dan satu hal yang paling esensial dalam menumbuhkan kecintaan pada Rasul SAW adalah meneladani segala perbuatan dan perkataannya. Juga menaati apa yang diperintah dan menjauhi semua yang dilarangnya. Wallahu a’lam.

Redaktur: Siwi Tri Puji B



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